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下注不仅为钱?探索个体参赌的心理机制
其他题名What we bet is not merely for money? Explore the psychological mechanism of gambling behaviors
郭慧芳
学位类型硕士
导师李纾 ; 郑蕊
2017-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业应用心理学
关键词购彩 赌球 心境 自我提升
摘要

以往调查显示,彩民购彩后往往出现弃奖行为,“中奖却弃奖”这一悖于常识的现象提示我们,彩民真正的购彩动机可能并非是金钱。同时,个体在概率较高的竞彩(赌球)表现中也有悖理性,在中国足球队参与比赛的竞彩中,个体“明知道输钱还要赌中国队赢”。这些现象均提示我们,我们对个体的购彩行为与赌球行为还知之甚少,个体下注可能不仅为钱。围绕这一问题,本课题通过两个研究揭示个体参赌的心理机制。
研究一采取大规模网络调查法、行为实验法、启动实验法相结合,通过三个实验对个体购彩不同阶段的心境变化以及不同心境状态下个体的购彩倾向进行深入探索,揭示个体购彩是否不仅为钱,也为好心境。实验一通过大规模网络调查对彩民购彩不同阶段的心境变化进行测量;实验二采用行为实验的方法,通过实验室操作,在完成实验任务后支付个体同等价值的彩票或现金,并对其不同阶段的心境进行追踪调查,同时记录彩票组与现金组被试的延迟对奖时间及弃奖人数。实验三通过操纵梦想成功/破灭启动情境,测量个体在不同心境下的购彩倾向。结果显示,个体购买彩票会获得好心境,与此同时,个体处于坏心境的时候也更倾向于购买彩票。
研究二采用质询理论法行为实验法相结合,通过三个实验探索个体赌球是否是为了自我提升。实验一通过质询理论的方法揭示个体赌球的原因。实验二进一步通过行为实验法,探索归属感与赌球倾向的关系,检验高归属感是否是赌球的原因。实验三通过行为实验法,探索个体赌球是否是为了自我提升。两个研究相互结合,从极小概率到中低概率,共同揭示个体参赌的心理机制。结果显示,个体赌球可能不仅为了钱,对球队的高归属感通过影响个体的赌球倾向,进一步影响个体的心境与自我评价水平。
本研究对以往的参赌动机进行了补充与拓展,从“心境”的角度出发,以购彩行为为切入点,从新的视角来审视传统期望家族理论极小概率的“空白”,并对低估中概率的赌球事件进行了补充,揭示了心境与自我提升对个体参赌行为的重要意义。

其他摘要

According to previous surveys, individuals who purchase a lottery always give up their reward, which is irreconcilable with common sense. That “people win the reward but abandon it” prompts us that the real motivation of purchasing a lottery may not merely be money. At the same time, the phenomenon that individuals take part in soccer gambling is also against rationality. Individuals always bet Chinese soccer team even knowing that they would lose money. These phenomena suggest us that we still know little about people’s gambling behaviors, and what contributes to them is still not fully understood. Focusing on this issue, we tried to reveal the underlying psychological mechanism of gambling behaviors through two studies. 
Study 1 combined online survey, behavioral experiment, and priming experiment to explore the mood changes after purchasing a lottery and the tendency to purchase it under different state of mind, to reveal that what we bet is not merely for money, but for mood. Experiment 1 conducted an online survey to measure individuals’ mood changes after purchasing a lottery. Experiment 2 further tested the mood changes using time series paradigm of the behavioral experiment. After completing a task, half of the subjects were told their reward was lottery, while the reward of the others was cash. Then we recorded subjects’ mood changes and the time delayed getting the reward. Experiment 3 manipulated subjects’ mood by priming whether the dream would come true, in order to measure the tendency to purchase a lottery in different situations. Study 1 revealed that individuals’ mood could improve a lot after purchasing a lottery, and when in a bad mood, they were more inclined to purchase a lottery.
Study 2 combined query theory and behavioral experiment to explore whether individual participants in soccer gambling to reach self-enhancement. Experiment 1 tried to reveal the cause of soccer gambling behavior. Experiment 2 explored the relationship between the sense of belonging and gambling tendency through behavioral experiment, to test whether the high sense of belonging is the real cause of soccer gambling. Experiment 3 tried to know whether individuals bet for self-enhancement through behavioral experiment as well. These two combined studies tried to reveal the psychological mechanism of gambling behaviors from small probability to medium probability. Study 2 revealed that individuals took part in soccer gambling may not merely bet for money. Gambling tendency mediated the influence of sense of belonging on individuals’ mood and self-evaluation.
Our results provided new insights into the underlying psychological mechanisms of gambling behaviors. We took lottery purchasing behavior for example to reexamine the very small probability of expected theory, and supplied the mechanism of medium probability. Our research emphasized that meaning of mood and self-enhancement for individuals’ gambling behaviors.

语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21411
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
郭慧芳. 下注不仅为钱?探索个体参赌的心理机制[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2017.
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