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情绪效价对错误记忆影响的 年龄差异:来自行为与 ERP 的证据
其他题名Age Differences in the Effect of Emotional Valence for False Memory: Evidence from Behavior and ERP
郎敏佳
学位类型硕士
导师李娟
2017-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业应用心理
关键词错误记忆 情绪效价 年龄差异 回想-拒绝 提取后监控 事件相关电位
摘要

目的:错误记忆是人类记忆中一种普遍存在的现象。与年轻人相比,老年人错误记忆更多,更容易受到误导信息的干扰。在日常生活中,我们会经历大量的情绪性事件,这些情绪性信息对错误记忆有怎样的影响,并且这种影响有何年龄差异是值得研究的问题。情绪效价对错误记忆影响的年龄差异研究较少,结果不一,并且较少考察其中的认知神经机制问题。本研究从行为与认知机制两个层面研究情绪对错误记忆影响的年龄差异。
方法:使用情绪性与非情绪性图片作为实验材料,使用类别联想范式进行研究,测验阶段进行再认判断。研究通过比较老年人与年轻人不同效价条件下错误记忆的差异以及与其对应的新旧效应成分,来考察情绪效价对错误记忆影响的年龄差异。
结果:1.正性诱饵增加老年人错误记忆产生,负性诱饵抑制错误记忆产生。在行为成绩上,老年人正性条件下错误记忆高于中性与负性刺激,负性条件下错误记忆成绩低于中性与正性条件; 在年轻组仅发现负性条件下错误记忆成绩低于中性与正性条件。脑电结果显示正确再认的旧刺激(以下称为旧刺激)和错误再认的诱饵刺激(以下称为诱饵刺激)诱发了幅度相当的后期顶区负性新旧效应,提示老年人可能是由于提取后监控过程受损导致无法区分旧刺激和诱饵刺激, 从而产生了错误记忆;年轻组在负性条件下,旧刺激和诱饵刺激均诱发了左侧顶区新旧效应,结合文献,我们推测该效应是回想-拒绝加工过程相联系的。2.情绪性材料对正确记忆有促进作用,老年人在行为成绩上情绪性材料高于非情绪性条件;年轻人行为成绩上未发现差异,但脑电结果提示情绪对记忆有促进。
结论:情绪对错误记忆有影响,且这种影响存在年龄差异。年龄差异可能是由于老年人和年轻人对诱饵刺激的加工方式不同导致。此外,研究结果从错误记忆角度为老年人的积极偏向提供了支持性证据。

其他摘要

Objective: False memory occurs when a remembered event either never occurred or the memory differs substantially from reality. It is a common phenomenon in human memory. Compared with young people, old people are more susceptible to false memories and are more vulnerable to the interference of misleading information. In daily life, we experience a lot of emotional events instead of  neutral  events. These emotional information has what effect on false memories, and whether this effect is different for young people and old people. It is a problem worthy of studying. Research about age differences in the effect of emotional valence for false memory is rare, and the results are mixed. There is also lack of discussion of the cognitive neural mechanism for age differences in  the effect of emotional valence for false memory. The present thesis aimed to explore the behavior differences and neurocognitive mechanism underlying the age differences in the effect of emotional valence for false memory.
Method: Use emotional and nonemotional pictures as the experimental stimulus, and use category associate paradigm to induce false memory. The electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded, and the contribution of familiarity, recollection and post-retrieval processes to both correct and false memory were qualified by the ERPs old/new effects. By comparing false memory in different emotional valence and the contribution of those ERPs old/new effects, to examine emotional valence of age differences in the effect of false memory.
Results: 1.Positive  lures  increased  false memory in old people, while negative lures suppressed false memory. For behavior performance, positive conditions induced more false memory than other two valence conditions in old people, and negative conditions induced more false memory than other two valence conditions in young people. For old people under the condition of positive stimulus, both targets and critical lures evoked a late parietal negative old/new effect, suggested that they have difficult to distinct targets and lures because of impaired post-retrieval processes; For young people under the condition of negative stimulus, both targets and lures evoked a left parietal old/new effect, combined with other research, we suggested this was because of the recall-to- reject strategy. 2. Emotional materials have promoting effect to the correct memory, the elderly had better performance in emotional materials than nonemotional ones; No difference was found on the young people behavior performance, but emotional targets evoked a left parietal old/new effect while nonemotional targets did not.
Conclusions:  Emotion has an impact on false memories, and this effect has age differences. Age difference may be due to different processing ways of old people and young people. In addition, the results of the study provides supporting evidence of the positive bias of old people from the perspective of false memories.

语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21417
专题健康与遗传心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
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郎敏佳. 情绪效价对错误记忆影响的 年龄差异:来自行为与 ERP 的证据[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2017.
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