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音乐层级结构对句法整合的影响
其他题名The influence of musical hierarchical structures on syntactic integration
张晶晶
学位类型博士
导师杨玉芳
2017-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业基础心理学
关键词音乐加工 层级结构 句法整合 时间结构 EEG
摘要

音乐在随时间展开过程中,小单元相互结合组成更大的单元,最终形成音乐层级结构,包括动机、乐节、乐句和乐段等。层级结构是音乐的一个重要特征,在音乐理论中占据着重要的地位。然而在感知过程中,层级结构是否会影响音乐加工目前并不清楚。本研究通过3个实验,考察音乐层级结构对句法整合的影响。
实验1给被试呈现自然音乐,考察音乐层级结构的感知,并探讨结构感知能力是否受到音乐训练的影响。结果发现,音乐家在所有结构边界处都诱发了CPS,并且CPS的波幅随着边界层级升高而增大,表明音乐家能够识别不同层级结构的边界,并且在大脑中对音乐层级结构形成层级表征。非音乐家只在最大边界处诱发CPS,此外在所有边界处诱发了前部分布的负波。边界处的负波可能表明非音乐家以另外一种策略加工边界,但是由于条件之间负波没有差异,说明他们虽然可以识别边界但是并不能够加以区分。两组参与者之间的比较,可以看出音乐训练能够提高层级边界感知能力。
实验2给音乐专业被试呈现和弦序列,操纵目标和弦与乐句背景和乐段背景之间的句法一致性,考察音乐句法在不同层级结构中的整合。结果发现,在早期阶段只有低层级乐句违反诱发前部负波ERAN,在晚期阶段乐句违反和乐段违反在N5上存在交互作用。结果表明不同层级的背景信息共同影响音乐句法的加工。在时间进程上,低层级句法加工更早发生。在晚期阶段不同层级的句法整合之间存在相互作用,可能表明低层级句法整合存在优先性。
实验3给音乐专业被试呈现和弦序列,操纵最后一个目标和弦与乐句背景的句法一致性和时间结构合理性,考察句法加工是否受到时间结构的影响。ERP结果发现句法违反在早期诱发右侧负波ERAN,在晚期诱发更大的负波N5;时间结构违反也诱发了早期的N150和晚期的负成分。虽然句法与时间结构的交互作用并不显著,但是简单效应检验发现只有当时间结构合理时,句法不一致相比一致诱发更明显的N5。进一步的时频分析同样发现,句法和时间结构在晚期存在交互作用,只有当时间结构合理时,句法不一致条件相比一致条件gamma(30-100 Hz)能量更强。结果说明在听音乐时人们会同时追踪句法维度和时间维度,在早期阶段,句法加工和时间结构加工独立进行。在晚期句法整合阶段(大约300-700 ms),句法整合过程受到时间结构的影响,在时间结构合理时句法整合能够更好地进行。
本论文通过三个实验,肯定了音乐层级结构在句法加工中的作用。音乐层级结构不仅具有知觉现实性,听众还会将新出现的信息整合到不同层级的音乐结构之中,这种整合过程受到时间结构的影响。

其他摘要

In music development, smaller elements combine into larger structures, resulting in a hierarchy of linguistic units, such as motifs, sections, phrases and periods. Hierarchical structure is a key feature of musicand plays an important role in music theory.However, itremains puzzling how hierarchical structure influence music perception.The current three experiments were designed to explore how hierarchical structures influence musical syntacticintegration.
In experiment 1, we explore the perception of hierarchical boundariesin music, and test whether musical expertise modifies such processing. The ERPresults showed that CPS wasevoked at all boundaries in musicians, and the amplitude of the component increased as the hierarchical level became higher, suggesting that musicians could represent music events at different timescales in a hierarchical way. For non-musicians,the CPS was only elicited at the period boundary and undistinguishable negativities were induced at all the three boundaries. The results indicate that a different and less clear way was used by non-musicians in boundary perception. The comparison between musicians and non-musicians showed that the phrasing ability could be enhanced by years of musical training.
In experiment 2, chord sequences were presented to musically trained listeners, with the last critical chord either harmonic related or less related to its preceding context at phrase and periodlevel. ERPs data revealed an ERAN-like effect for phrase context in an early time window and a later interaction between the phrase and period contexts in a N5-like component.These results suggest that both the higher-level and lower-level contexts influence the processing of an incoming music event, and the lower-level process happens earlier than thehigher-level. Moreover, the interaction between the phrase context and period context in N5 may suggest that music syntactic integration at lower-level takes priority over integration at higher-level.
In experiment 3, chord sequences were also presented to musicians. Syntacticand temporal structure of chordsequences were manipulated, makingthe target chord either harmonic related or less related to its preceding phrase context, and also congruous or incongruous withits temporal structure. In this way, we aimed to examine weather and how musical temporal structure influence syntactic integration.ERPdata revealedan early right negativity(ERAN) and a later N5 for syntactic effect, and an early N150 and late negativities for temporal effect. Although there was no interaction between syntactic relatedness and temporal congruency, simple effect analysis revealed that less related harmonic context evoked larger N5 only when the temporal structure is congruous. The time-frequency analysis results further showed that there wan an interaction between temporal structure and syntactic integration in late stage. The less related harmonic context inducedlarger power in gamma frequency band(30-100 Hz)only when the temporal structure was congruous.The results indicate that when listening to music, listeners track both the pitch and temporal pattens. The two dimensions were independent in early stage,and in late stage(about 300-700 ms) syntactic integration was influenced by temporal structure.
The thesis confirmed the effectof musical hierarchical structures on music perception. Listeners not only perceived hierarchical structures, but also continuouslyintegrate current information into different structures.Moreover, syntactic integration is influenced by temporal dimension of musical structures.

语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21425
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
张晶晶. 音乐层级结构对句法整合的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2017.
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