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个人规范与示范性规范对行人不安全行为意向的影响机制
Alternative TitleHow personal norm and descriptive norm on pedestrian’s unsafe behavioral intention
李丹
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor李永娟
2017-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline应用心理学
Keyword个人规范 示范性规范 我构念 规范焦点理论
Abstract

近些年来,道路交通伤害给行人带来的威胁十分严重。中国是世界上发生道路交通事故最严重的国家之一,同时我国行人主动违章的现象十分常见,面对行人日常违规行为高危性与频发性并存的现状,探索行人主动违规背后的心理因素对于改善行人的出行安全有着重要作用。
本研究将基于自我构念理论和规范焦点理论探讨个人规范与示范性规范对行人不安全行为的影响机制。研究具体包含了两个子研究,研究一采用实验法模拟交通情境探索两种规范对行人违规行为的影响以及预期愧疚感和风险知觉在这一过程中起到的中介作用;研究二将采用问卷法探索两种规范对行为意向的预测作用及其中介机制,以及独立型自我构念和互依型自由构念对安全规范影响违规行为过程的调节作用。
结果发现:我国行人的示范性规范比个人规范更消极,两种规范均可以显著预测行人不安全过街的行为意向,预期愧疚感和风险知觉的中介作用均显著。具体来说,个人规范可以通过预期愧疚感来影响违规行为意向,示范性规范可以通过预期愧疚感和风险知觉来共同影响违规行为意向。同时,自我构念对规范影响行为的过程起到调节作用。相比于低独立型自我构念行人,高独立型自我构念行人的个人规范通过预期愧疚感影响违规行为意向的作用更强。相比于低互依型自我构念行人,高互依型自我构念行人的示范性规范通过预期愧疚感和风险知觉影响违规行为意向的作用更强。本研究对于行人交通干预工作和安全广告的设计具
有一定的指导意义。

Other Abstract

In recent years, there has been a great threat of road traffic injury to pedestrians. China is one of the countries that involved most serious road traffic accidents all over the world.  At the same time,  pedestrian’s  illegal phenomenon is very common  in China.  Due to the  high risk  as well as the  frequency of pedestrian’s  violation behaviors,  it’s important to  explore the psychological factors  of  their    violation intention, which play an important role in improving pedestrian’s safety.
Based on the self-construal theory and a focus theory of normative conduct, the purpose of the current study is  to explore  the influence mechanism of personal norm and  descriptive  norm  on pedestrian’s  unsafe behavior intention.  In study one, we adopted an  experimental design  to explore the effect of two norms on pedestrian’s violation intention,  as well as the potential mediating role of anticipated regret and risk perception on the relationship between two norms and violation intention  in the simulation of a  real-world  traffic situation. In study two, a questionnaire survey was  conducted to investigate the effect of pedestrian’s daily traffic-related norms on pedestrian’s violation intention,  the mediating role of anticipated regret and  risk perception,  as well as the moderating  effect of  independent  self-construal  and interdependent self-construal on the relationship above.
Results showed that Chinese pedestrian’s descriptive norm was more negative than personal norm, and both personal and descriptive norms significantly predicted pedestrian’s  unsafe crossing-behavior intention. Meanwhile, both anticipated regret and risk perception had significant mediating effect. Specifically, personal norm had an effect on  intention through anticipated  regret, and descriptive norm had an effect on  intention through  anticipated  regret  and  risk perception. At the same time, self-construal moderated the relationship above. Compared with pedestrians were low on  independent self-construal,  when pedestrians  were  high  on  independent self-construal,  personal norm  had  a  stronger effect on the intention through the anticipated  regret. Compared with  pedestrians were  low  on  interdependent self-construal,  when pedestrians were  high  on  interdependent self-construal, descriptive norm had a stronger effect on the intention through the anticipated regret and  risk perception. The  current research has a  practical  contribution  for pedestrian safety intervention and the design of safety advertisements.

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21439
Collection社会与工程心理学研究室
Affiliation中国科学院心理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
李丹. 个人规范与示范性规范对行人不安全行为意向的影响机制[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2017.
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