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The Influence of Counterfactual Comparison on Fairness in Gain-Loss Contexts
Li, Qi1,2; Wang, Chunsheng1,2; Taxer, Jamie3; Yang, Zhong1,2; Zheng, Ya4; Liu, Xun1,2; Ya Zheng; Xun Liu
2017-05-09
Source PublicationFRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY
Correspondent Emailzhengya@dmu.edu.cn ; xunliu@gmail.com
ISSN1664-1078
SubtypeArticle
Volume8Issue:0Pages:1-11
Abstract

Fairness perceptions may be affected by counterfactual comparisons. Although certain studies using a two player ultimatum game (UG) have shown that comparison with the proposers influences the responders' fairness perceptions in a gain context, the effect of counterfactual comparison in a UG with multiple responders or proposers remains unclear, especially in a loss context. To resolve these issues, this study used a modified three-player UG with multiple responders in Experiment 1 and multiple proposers in Experiment 2 to examine the influence of counterfactual comparison on fairness-related decision-making in gain and loss contexts. The two experiments consistently showed that regardless of the gain or loss context, the level of inequality of the offer and counterfactual comparison influenced acceptance rates (ARs), response times (RTs), and fairness ratings (FRs). If the offers that were received were better than the counterfactual offers, unequal offers were more likely to be accepted than equal offers, and participants were more likely to report higher FRs and to make decisions more quickly. In contrast, when the offers they received were worse than the counterfactual offers, participants were more likely to reject unequal offers than equal offers, reported lower FRs, and made decisions more slowly. These results demonstrate that responders' fairness perceptions are influenced by not only comparisons of the absolute amount of money that they would receive but also specific counterfactuals from other proposers or responders. These findings improve our understanding of fairness perceptions.

Keywordcounterfactual comparison social decision-making ultimatum game loss context gain context
DOI10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00683
Indexed BySSCI
Language英语
Funding OrganizationNational Natural Science Foundation of China(31571161 ; China Scholarship Council ; National Social Science Foundation of China(14ZDB161) ; 31200782 ; 31500872 ; 31640039)
WOS Research AreaPsychology
WOS SubjectPsychology, Multidisciplinary
WOS IDWOS:000401223800001
WOS HeadingsSocial Sciences
WOS Keyword3-PERSON ULTIMATUM GAME ; ECONOMIC DECISION-MAKING ; SOCIAL COMPARISONS ; BRAIN RESPONSES ; NEURAL RESPONSES ; UNFAIRNESS ; BEHAVIOR ; ERP ; PREFERENCES ; COMPETITION
Citation statistics
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21473
Collection中国科学院行为科学重点实验室
Corresponding AuthorYa Zheng; Xun Liu
Affiliation1.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Psychol, Key Lab Behav Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China
2.UCAS, Dept Psychol, Beijing, Peoples R China
3.Stanford Univ, Dept Psychol, Stanford Psychophysiol Lab, Stanford, CA USA
4.Dalian Med Univ, Dept Psychol, Dalian, Peoples R China
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Li, Qi,Wang, Chunsheng,Taxer, Jamie,et al. The Influence of Counterfactual Comparison on Fairness in Gain-Loss Contexts[J]. FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY,2017,8(0):1-11.
APA Li, Qi.,Wang, Chunsheng.,Taxer, Jamie.,Yang, Zhong.,Zheng, Ya.,...&Xun Liu.(2017).The Influence of Counterfactual Comparison on Fairness in Gain-Loss Contexts.FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY,8(0),1-11.
MLA Li, Qi,et al."The Influence of Counterfactual Comparison on Fairness in Gain-Loss Contexts".FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY 8.0(2017):1-11.
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