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抑郁症患者负性注意偏向的心理机制
其他题名The Psychological Mechanismsof Negative Attention Bias in Depression
梁晋
学位类型博士
导师刘勋
2017-04
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业认知神经科学
关键词抑郁症 负性注意偏向 注意捕获易化 注意解脱困难 认知控制
摘要

抑郁症是一种以显著并且持久的心境低落,自身难以调节为特征的心理障碍,严重影响患者及其家人的生活和工作,且患病率高,难愈率低,复发率高。该疾病之所以治疗效果不理想在很大程度上与疾病发生的心理机制尚不明确有关。负性注意偏向是抑郁症患者的主要特征之一,对抑郁症的发生发展和预后都有重要影响。本研究使用行为和脑电的技术,从抑郁症患者的负性注意偏向的形成机制和认知控制功能在抑郁症负性注意偏向中的作用两个方面着手,对抑郁症负性注意偏向的心理机制进行探讨。
本文第一部分采用面孔判断任务和目标探测任务,从抑郁症患者的负性知觉偏向和负性注意偏向的角度揭示抑郁症负性注意偏向发生的心理过程。研究发现:一、抑郁症患者存在负性知觉偏向,表现为对于模棱两可的情绪面孔,尽管抑郁症患者将他们知觉为是负性的概率并没有比健康对照组患者高,但是对抑郁症患者来说,最难于判断的面孔图形比健康对照组人群更偏正性。二、抑郁症患者的既存在注意捕获的易化,也存在注意解脱的困难,抑郁症患者的负性注意偏向是注意捕获易化和注意解脱困难共同作用的结果。
本文第二部分采用Flanker和Stop-signal任务,从认知控制的冲突监测功能和反应抑制功能在抑郁症患者负性注意偏向中的作用的角度,考察抑郁症负性注意偏向的心理机制。研究发现:一、在冲突监控方面,抑郁症患者对冲突比健康对照人群更敏感,Flanker为高兴条件下情绪冲突的反应时更长;抑郁症患者对负性情绪面孔知觉更快,表现为,加工负性面孔的VPP 潜伏期早于正性面孔。二、 抑郁症患者需要更大的努力达到同健康对照人群相同的加工水平。表现为尽管行为反应上两组之间没有显著差异,但是Stop信号条件下,抑郁症患者的N1波幅显著大于健康对照组。
本文第三部分对抑郁症相关的因素进行了评估,研究结果显示个体的社会支持水平、对社会支持的领悟、人际关系、社会情感体验、情绪稳定性、人格特征等与抑郁症患者的症状严重程度高度相关,目标探测任务中,光栅朝向与位置一致条件下,SOA为100ms,光栅角度为10度时的解脱指数与抑郁相关量表分数以及抑郁评估量表分数高度相关,说明该指数与抑郁症状的严重程度有关,可能对抑郁症的评估和预后有一定的参考价值。
总的来说,本研究支持抑郁症患者对负性情绪信息具有加工优势,这种加工优势可能是造成抑郁症患负性注意偏向的原因,但是当有外在需求的时候,抑郁症患者也能对正性情绪进行很好的加工,这表明有望通过改变抑郁症患者的注意关注焦点来改善抑郁症患者的负性注意偏向。

其他摘要

Depression has seriously effect on the lives and work of patients as well as their families, and is characterized by the high prevalence, low cure and high recurrence rate. The reason of the difficult treatment to this disease is largely related to that the psychological mechanism of disease is unclear. Negative attention bias is one of the main features of depression, which has important impact on the occurrence, development and prognosis of depression. In this study, we explored the psychological mechanism of negative attention bias in depression by investigating the formation mechanism of negative attention bias and the cognitive control function in the negative attention bias in depression using behavioral and EEG techniques.
The first part explored the negative perception bias and negative attention bias of depression through the face judgement the target detection task. This study found that: (1) Depressive patients have negative perceptual bias. Although the rate of ambiguous faces were perceived as negative in depression was not more than those in healthy, the most difficult judgement of the faces were more sad than those for the healthy. (2) negative attention bias in depression were derived from the combined effect of the facilitation of attention engagement and the difficulty of attention disengagement.
The second part probe the effcet of conflict monitoring function and response suppression function in cognitive control on negative attention bias of depression by Flanker and Stop-signal task. It has shown that: (1) depression were more sensitive to conflict than healthy controls. Because patients are more adept at emotional processing, it was easier to deal with emotional conflict than gender for depression, and healthy control groups show the opposite pattern. Depression had faster negative emotional perception than healthy, specifically, there VPP latency for the positive face processing was earlier than those of negative faces. (2) depression patients need greater efforts to achieve the same processing level of the healthy. Although there was no significant difference between the two groups in reaction time, the N1 amplitude of patients with depression was significantly higher than that of the healthy control group under the stop signal condition.
The factors related to depression were evaluated in the third part. The results had showed that the social support level, the comprehension to social support, the interpersonal relationships, the social emotional experiences, the emotional stability, the personality traits of the individual were significantly related to the severity of depression. When SOA was 100 ms, the grating angle is 10 degrees and the target orientation and space position was consistent, the disengagement index in the target detection task was high related to the severity of depression as well as the other scales scores related to depression. which indicated this index should be expected to a new criteria of depression assessment and screening.
In general, this study supports depression had negative emotional information processing advantages, this processing advantage may resulted to the negative attention bias in depression, but when there was external demand, depression patients could also well process positive emotion, which suggested that it could be expected to alter the negative attention bias of depressed by changing the focus of attention in depression.

语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21491
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
梁晋. 抑郁症患者负性注意偏向的心理机制[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2017.
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