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情绪靶线索对前瞻记忆影响的年龄差异
其他题名The Age Effect of Emotional Cues on Prospective Memory Performance
咸金花
学位类型博士
导师韩布新
2017-04
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业发展与教育心理学
关键词前瞻记忆 情绪效应 年龄效应 工作记忆 事件相关电位
摘要

目的:研究表明前瞻记忆存在年龄差异,情绪靶线索可能是影响该差异的重要因素。然而,情绪靶线索对前瞻记忆影响的年龄差异如何及其潜在的神经机制尚不清楚。本研究以此为切入点,在前瞻记忆理论的框架下,基于年轻人和老年人被试,通过三个研究系统探讨了不同效价的情绪靶线索对前瞻记忆的影响机制及其年龄差异。
方法:研究一采用单一事件前瞻记忆范式,通过调节进行中任务(Ongoingtask)的认知负荷,考察情绪靶线索对前瞻记忆的影响及其年龄差异。研究二采用习惯化事件前瞻记忆范式,考察情绪靶线索对前瞻记忆输出监控的影响及其年龄差异。研究三借助事件相关电位技术,分阶段(编码和提取)考察情绪靶线索对前瞻记忆影响的神经机制及其年龄差异。
结果:研究一发现,(1)情绪靶线索促进了年轻人和老年人的前瞻记忆,但该情绪促进效应受认知负荷的影响;(2)正性和负性靶线索条件下的前瞻记忆均好于中性靶线索条件。
研究二发现,(1)年轻人前瞻记忆的重复错误率低于老年人;(2)正性和负性靶线索可以降低老年人前瞻记忆的重复错误率。
研究三发现,编码阶段:(1)年轻人的LPP 波显著地大于老年人;(2)负性靶线索引起年轻人的LPP 波显著大于中性和正性;正性靶线索引起老年人的LPP 波与负性边缘显著。提取阶段:(1)和年轻人相比,老年人引发更负的N300波;(2)中性靶线索引起了更负的N300 波;(3)年轻人的顶叶正波显著地大于老年人;(4)负性靶线索引起了年轻人更正的顶叶正波,而正性靶线索则引起了老年人更正的顶叶正波。
结论:(1)情绪靶线索促进了年轻人和老年人的前瞻记忆,但该情绪促进效应受认知负荷的影响;(2)情绪靶线索可以降低老年人前瞻记忆的重复错误率;(3)前瞻记忆的情绪促进效应源于编码和提取阶段:情绪靶线索占用更多的认知资源进行编码,也更易被觉察并完成意向行为的提取。

其他摘要

Objective: The studies show that there is an age effect on prospective memory, the emotional cues maybe an important factor to affect the age effect. However, it is unclear that the age effect of emotional cues on prospective memory and its neural mechanism. Based on the prospective memory theory, this study explores the influence mechanism of the emotional cues on prospective memory and its age effect.
Methods: Study 1 investigated whether emotional cues improved prospective memory performance in both younger and older adults by manipulating the working memory demands of ongoing task, which used the single-event prospective memory paradigm. N-back visual working memory tasks were used as an ongoing task in addition to a prospective memory task, remembering to press a key-press when the specific cue occurred. Study 2 investigated the influence of emotional cues on prospective memory output monitoring in both younger and older adults by using the habitual prospective memory paradigm. Study 3 applied an Event-related potential approach to disentangle mechanism of emotional valence effect on prospective memory across the encoding and retrieval phases in both younger and older adults.
Results: Study 1: (1) The emotional cues could improve prospective memory performance for both younger and older adults, but the emotional valence effect is affected by the working memory demands of ongoing task; (2) Moreover, higher prospective memory accuracy was seen in younger and older adults for both positive and negative cues than for neutral ones.
Study 2: (1) Younger adults performed lower repetition error than older adults; (2) Positive and negative cues could reduce older adults’ prospective memory repetition error relative to neutral ones.
Study 3: Encoding phase: (1) The amplitude of the LPP in younger adults was larger than older adults; (2) In the negative cue condition, the amplitude of the LPP in younger adults was larger than that in the neutral and positive cues; in the positive cue condition, the amplitude of the LPP in older adults was marginally larger than that in the negative cues. Retrieval phase: (1) N300 elicited in the older adults was more negative than younger adults; (2) N300 elicited by neural cues was more negative than that by emotional cues; (3) Parietal Positivity elicited in the younger adult was more positive than older adults; (4) Parietal Positivity elicited by negative cues in the younger adults was more positive, which elicited by positive cues in the older adults was more positive.
Conclusions: (1) The emotional cues could improve prospective memory performance for both younger and older adults, but the emotional valence effect is affected by the working memory demands; (2) The emotional cues could reduce older adults’ prospective memory repetition error; (3) The mechanism of this emotional valence effect is reflected in the encoding and retrieval phases. The emotional cues would spend more cognitive resources for encoding, and are more likely to be detected and easily to accomplish the retrieval of an intention from memory.

语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21494
专题健康与遗传心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
咸金花. 情绪靶线索对前瞻记忆影响的年龄差异[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2017.
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