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工作记忆中央执行功能特异性和可分离性的研究
Alternative TitleCentral Executive, Fluid Intelligence, and Aging: Is Central Executive Function Unique and Unitary
陈天勇
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor韩布新
2002-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline心理学
Keyword工作记忆 中央执行功能 液态智力 年龄差异
Abstract

本研究以工作记忆中央执行功能及其年老化研究的最新进展为依据,综合运用个体差异和功能层而分析两种研究途径,对中央执行功能的特异性和可分离性进行了探讨。选取随机生成、选择性注意和记忆刷新三种中央执行功能,针对每一利,执行功能安排了两种难度水平的任务。液态智力以瑞文标准推理测验为衡量才旨标。年龄变量设置条什匹配的青年和老年两个组。主要探讨两个问题:(1)中央执行功能相对于液态智力是否具有一定的特异性;(2)中央执行功能是否可以进一步划分为一些相对独立的子功能。
1中央执行功能相对于液态智力具有一定的特异性
    第一,记忆刷新能力具有一定的特异胜,其年龄效应不能完全由液态智力的年龄差异束解释。
    第二,控制液态智力的影响后,三种中央执行功能内部不同难度水平之间的相关仍然显著。说明相同的内部机制(特异性)是同类中央执行任务之间相关的一个重要原因。
    第三,在木实验条件一下,选择J胜注意能力与液态智力相关不显著,并且在低龄老年组(平均63. 8岁)选择性注意能力不存在年老化现象。
2中央执行功能可以进一步分离为一些相互独立的子功能
    第一,三种中央执行功能的年龄效应不同。从大到小依次为:记忆刷新、随机生成和选择性注意。虽然在同种中央执行功能内,不同难度水平任务的年龄效应类似,表现出一种强烈的全或无效应。
    第三,控制液态智力的影响后,不同中央执行功能之间的相关不显著。

Other Abstract

   Recently, there were mainly two controversies in the research of working memory (WM), fluid intelligence (Fl) and aging. First controversy was about whether the performance dif}'erence between younger and older adults on WM/ central executive function (CEF) was attributable to the age difference oh general FI. Second controversy was about whether CEF can be fractionated. Almost all previous researches considered only one CEP in one experiment, so the relationship between those functions has not been clear.
    This study was designed to explore the unique and unitary of CEf. Three CEFs (random generation, selective attention, and memory updating) were considered. The results showed that 1) age effect was significant on random generation and memory updating (MU). However, there was no age effect on selective attention. 2) The age effect was significant on MU even if age deficits in FI were controlled. 3) Although different levels did not interact with age (a different CEFs had different age effect. 4) strong all-or-none effect) within each CEF,After FI was statistical controlled, the correlation between different CEf tasks was not significant, but the correlation between different levels within each CEF was still significant.
    Taken together, these results suggest that the deFcit in CEF should be unique, and at lease partially independent of age differences in general FI (referring to result 2, 4); moreover, CEF should not be a unitary system but include separable functions (referring to result 1,3).

Subject Area基础心理学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21602
Collection健康与遗传心理学研究室
Affiliation中国科学院心理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
陈天勇. 工作记忆中央执行功能特异性和可分离性的研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2002.
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