基于以上发现，结合已有的理论，我们提出了一个新的有注意参与的双向搜索模型Attention Involved Bidirectional Search Model )，并尝试用该模型来解释距离效应和SNARC效应。
The issue how the ability of human processing numbers is influenced by different factors has been attended for a long time. The theory in existence suggests that the number representation and processing of human is based on a number line from the left to the right.Moreover, the recent experimental studies show that there is the very closely relation between the number line and spatial attention, and the new theory begins to introduce the factor of attention to the number processing. However, it has been lacked of direct experimental evidence and related special theory in the research filed till now.
The purpose of the present studies was to investigate how the number processing is affected by attention. By changing the attention condition, we analyzed the changing of various basic effects in the number processing under different attention conditions. The results showed that on several familiar effects of number processing, the numbers of different magnitudes were influenced differently in different attention conditions, and the influence might be automatic.
Concretely, in order to investigate the difference between in attention and non-attention condition that the number distance effect, the number notation effect, and the number SNARC effect might have, we used three different experimental paradigms (without the cue, with the endogenous cue and with the exogenous cue) to change attention condition. The main finds are showed in the following:
1)The influence of attention on number distance effect was mainly found in the large numbers (6一9). The distance effect of big numbers obviously weakened or disappeared in unattended condition without the cue; the same results were got in the condition with the exogenous cue; but attention hardly affected the distance effect in the condition with endogenous cue.
2) The influence of attention on number notation effect was mainly found in the small numbers (1一4), and the influence is very stable. The subjects' performance on small Arabic numbers was worse than small Chinese numbers in the all three unattended conditions (without the cue, with the cue or with the exogenous cue).
3) The influence of attention on number SNARC effect was also mainly found in the larger numbers (8, 9). The SNARC effect of large numbers was influenced in the unattended condition without the cue. The same results were also got in the unattended condition with the endogenous cue or with the exogenous cue, and moreover, the exogenous attention has more influence than endogenous attention and Arabic numbers got more influence than Chinese numbers.
Based on both the results of the present study and the existed theory, we proposed a new model, Attention Involved Bidirectional Search Model (AIBSM), and tried to use it to explain the number distance effect and the number SNARC effect.
The present study has important theoretic and practical significance. For the theoretic significance, as the high-level cognitive processes, number processing affects the related research of language and presentation directly; as to the practical significance, the influence of different attention condition on human ability of number processing has important application value in education psychology and engineering psychology.