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7岁至11岁儿童的检测时与智力的关系
其他题名THE RELATIONS BETWEEN INSPECTION TIME AND INTELLIGENCE OF CHILDREN
刘正奎
学位类型硕士
导师施建农 ; 张梅玲
2002-06
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业发展与教育心理学
关键词检测时 智力 中央信息加工速度 刺激材料的基木单元
摘要

检测时是信息加速度度的重要指标,检测时实验是当前智力研究领域中的一个重要范式。研究者试图通过检测时与智力之间的关系研究,探索人类智力的基础和智力个体差异的原因。关于检测时与智力之间的关系研究起源于70年代,但直到近几年,才真汇开始深入研究。日前,研究主要集中在探讨两者关系的实质上。研究对象基本上为正常成人。对儿童的检测时进行系统的研究还很少。本研究以7, 9, 11岁的城市小学儿童为研究对象,采用]检测时多任务作业方法。着重探讨了四个问题:(1)儿童检测叼的发展特点(2)儿童检测时与智力之间相关的普遍性;(3)从发展的角度,探讨检测时与智力之间的相关特点;(4)儿章检测时与认知能力之间的关系。研究结果如下:
1、儿童的检测时具有以下的发展特点。首先,随着年龄的增长,检测时有逐步下降的趋势。其次,儿童的检测时的发展速度受年龄影响并依赖于信息加工的任务。第三,儿童的检测时受加工任务类型影响。
2、儿童的检测时与智力测验分数之间存在显著相关,而且具有普遍性。从不同年龄组的检测时与智力的关系来看,检测时与智力测验的分数之间具有中等程度的负相关,但随着年龄的增长,两者的相关程度有一定的波动,表现出降低的趋势。它反映了经验和知识增加对检时与智力测验之间关系的影响。实际上 ,检测时能更好地反映个体的液态智力。
3、不同检测时水平的儿童的检测时与智力的关系是不同的,尽管检测时快组和慢组的检测时与智力测验分数之间均有显著相关,但检测时慢组时的检测时能更好预测他们的智力测验分数。
4、儿童的检测时与有速度限制的认知任务之间具有明显的相关,它反映了中央信息加工速度在有速度限制的认能力具有普遍的影响和作用。
5,检测时的材料的基木单元对认知能力具有一定的特异性。在控制年龄因素后,这种特异性在不同认知作业水平上表现是不同的。在一般智力(Gi)任务上表现出特异性。但在视觉辨别速度(Gv)任务卜,则没有表现出特异性。
本研究提示,检测时研究涉及两个不可分割的方面,即中央信息加工速度和刺激材料的基本单元。其中,中央信息加速度对各种认知活动或智力活动有着普遍的影响和作用;刺激材料的基本单元对各种认知活动或智力活动的影响则依赖于认知活动的任务水平。

其他摘要

Inspection  time (IT) is an important key index of Speed of Information Processing (SIP) and IT experiment is an important paradigm in the domain of intelligence.  Researchers try to explore the reasons of the differences between the basis of human's intelligence and individual's intelligence, through studying the relation between IT and intelligence.  The study of the relation between IT and intelligence came from 70s, but the deeper study did not begin until recent years. At present the study focuses on discussing the essential of the relation between the two and the participators of these studies are usually normal adults.  So there are few systematicly studies of IT which focus on the children.  Thus this study focused on the children in urban whose ages are 7, 9 and 11 and used the methods of multitasks of IT to probe:
(1)The characteristics of the development of the children's IT.  (2) The universalism of the relation between IT and intelligence of children. (3) exploring the characteristics of relation between IT and the intelligence of the children from the angle of development. (4) The relation between IT and the cognitive ability of the children.
From the present research, the following conclusions were drawn:
l.the characteristics of the children's IT represent as follows: firstly, with the increasing of the ages, IT has the trends of decreasing. Secondly, the speed of the development of the children's IT is influenced by the ages and the tasks of information processing.  Thirdly, there are different speeds of the children's IT under different IT's tasks.
2. There is a significant correlation between IT and the scores of the intelligent tests of the children and the result has the universality.  Seeing from the relations between IT and intelligence in different groups of ages, there is a moderately negative correlation between IT' and the scores of the intelligent tests of the children.  With the increasing of the ages, the degree of the correlation between them has a certain fluctuation, which represents the trend of decreasing comparatively.  It reflects that the increasing of experience and knowledge have effect on the relation between IT and the intelligent tests.  Actually IT can reflect the liquid intelligence better.
3. There are different relations between IT and the intelligence to the children who have different levels of IT. Though there is obvious correlation between IT and intelligent tests to the children who are in both fast or slow IT groups, the groups which get slow IT can predict the scores of the intelligence better.
4. There is significant correlation between IT of children and the cognitive tasks which have the limitation of speed.  It shows that the speed of center information processing has universal effect on the cognitive ability, which has the limitation of speed.
5. The basic units of IT's materials have a certain specialization to the cognitive ability.   After controlling the  factor of ages,  the  specialization has  different representation on the different levels of cognitive tasks.  In the general intelligent tasks it represents specialization, but in the factor of Gv there are no.
This study hinted that IT relate to two indiscerptible parts, which are the speed of central information processing and the basic units of materials.  Thereinto, the speed of center information processing has universal effect on various cognitive activities and

语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21658
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
刘正奎. 7岁至11岁儿童的检测时与智力的关系[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2002.
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