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社会的和认知的不准确性对职务信息完整性的影响
其他题名Effects of Social and Cognitive Inaccuracy on Job Information Completeness
罗凤英
学位类型硕士
导师王二平
2002-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业应用心理学
关键词职务分析 完整性 极端性转移 社会称许性 启发式 类化
摘要

职务分析中,社会的和认知的不准确性来源可能导致职务信息不完整。本研究将目标限定在分析极端性转移和社会称许性两种社会的不准确性来源、启发式和类化两种认知的不准确性来源对职务信息完整性的效应,为探讨和检验各种消除或控制不准确性来源的研究提供根据。
研究应用实验方法,通过改变职务分析形式(同质群体讨论、异质群体讨论、个体)操纵极端性转移变量;变换研究目的指导语(为了研究职务特征、为了确定职位贡献)操纵社会称许性变量;变换信息来源(被试自己对职务的理解和印象、职务说明书、竞赛录像)操纵启发式策略变量;变换被试(任职者、管理者、职务分析员)操纵类化策略变量,以验证研究假设。实验选取排球运动中的主攻和二传作为目标职务。被试包含三类,运动员(代表任职者)和教练员(代表管理者)来自北京高校排球队,职务分析员为高校人力资源管理专业的大学生,被试数总计245人。职务分析工具为《职位分析问卷》,问卷结果作为因变量。
对数据的方差分析结果表明:(1)极端性转移变量对职务信息完整性的效应不显著。(2)容易产生社会称许性反应的指导语2(为了确定职位贡献)更可能导致职务信息不完整。并且指导语更多地对任职者(运动员)起作用,而对职务分析员没有影响。(3)启发式策略在研究目的指导语条件下对教练员有显著影响,在为了确定职位贡献指导语下对三类被试都有显著影响,但影响的方向不一致。对运动员是职务说明书高于看录像和凭经验,对职务分析员是录像高于职务说明书和凭经验。(4)职务分析员比管理者(教练员)或任职者(运动员)更可能采用类化策略,导致职务信息不完整。(5)社会和认知因素对职务信息完整性的效应受调节变量—职务信息内容的影响。

其他摘要

Job analysis depends on individual's subjective judgments, and may subject to inaccuracy of job information. The aim of this research is to determine which kinds of social and cognitive sources of inaccuracy may affect job information completeness. Such social sources as extremity shifts and social desirability, as well as cognitive sources  such  as  heuristics  and  categorization may result  in  job  information incompleteness of job analysis.
Laboratory experiment was designed to verify hypotheses, four independent variables mentioned above were manipulated respectively by job analysis forms, instructions of study goal, job information sources and job analyst identity. Setter and main attacker of volle沙all were chosen as the target positions. The subjects involved three categories. The athletes (who were regarded as incumbents) and the coaches (who were regarded as supervisors) came from 16 volleyball teams of –Beijing universities, and job analysts were students majoring in human resource management from 2 universities of Beijing. All subjects counted up to 245. Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) was delivered to collect data.
ANOVA results showed that (a) there was no significant effect in extremity shifts; (b) socially desirable responding could result in incomplete job information, when there was an instruction accentuating the position's value to the organization, and more likely from incumbents than job analysts; (c) there were interactions in heuristics' effect, under instruction of research purpose only coaches were affected, whereas under instruction of determining on position contribution purpose all three sorts of subjects were affected, and heuristics were less likely when job description was provided to  athletes,  as well as video was showed to job  analysts;  (d) categorization of jobs could result in incomplete job information, this was more likely when respondent were job analysts, and there was no significant difference between supervisors and incumbents; (e) the effect of social and cognitive sources on job information completeness was modulated by a mediate variable (i.e. job information content).

语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21659
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
罗凤英. 社会的和认知的不准确性对职务信息完整性的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2002.
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