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组织错误的表现与类型一核电与民航的研究
其他题名Representations and竹pes of Organizational Errors: Study on Nuclear Power Station and Civil Aviation
李永娟
学位类型博士
导师王二平
2002-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业应用心理学
关键词组织错误 信息界面 技术控制 非技术
摘要

本研究主要通过核电、民航两个领域的研究对复杂社会一技术系统的组织错误进行探索。研究主要由三部分组成:先导性研究,核电事件再分析,民航飞行、空管和机务个体访谈。数据分析主要采用了编码分析的方法。首先由研究者根据事件报告或访谈的内容确定变量,并对每一变量根据可能的变异范围确定赋值标准,形成编码本。然后,对每一篇事件报告或访谈记录,分别由3名编码者根据编码本独立判断,确定各变量的赋值;根据多数原则确定各变量的最终赋值。通过编码,使定性的资料转变为定量的数据,可进行更深入的统计分析。
先导性研究主要是通过对某核电公司15名职工的个体半结构化访谈,以及来自核电•航天、航空、化工、石油化工五个领域安全管理部门或质量保证部门成员共7人的专家座谈会,对安全管理问题进行揭示,为组织错误进一步的实证研究提供基础。核电事件再分析实验材料选择的是某核电公司的事件报告,效标数据来自专家对事件处理过程的评价。民航半结构化访谈的被试来自两个航空公司28名飞行员、两个管制中心的33名管制员,一个飞机维修公司17名机务维修人员,效标数据来自相关部门的客观统计及主观评价。
通过对编码得到的数据进一步分析,得到如下研究结果:
1.根据聚类分析的结果,得到核电部门的五类类组织错误,分别为技术控制因素,非技术因素,信息界面,组织计划,通盘思想缺乏。
2.将事件处理是否成功作为效标,发现处理成功的事件在技术保障因素上相对比较好。相对于比较成熟的技术控制因素,非技术因素对“不安全”的作用更大。
3.根据编码专家的主观判断,得到民航领域的三类组织错误,分别为技术控制因素,非技术因素,信息界面。
4.通过对民航飞行与机务信息界面分析发现:飞行与机务在对待飞机放行标准  上存在差异。飞行对飞机放行要求更严格。
S.通过对民航飞行与管制信息界面分析发现:飞行与管制在对彼此角色的认知上存在一定差异。飞行更倾向将管制看作服务部门,而管制更倾向于自己的“指令”角色。

其他摘要

The aim of this thesis is to explore the organizational errors in nuclear power stations and civil aviations. It consists three main parts: (1)pilot study, (2)reanalysis of the accident according to the accident report, (3)interview of the pilot, controller and maintenance persons of the civil aviations.
The coding technique, a qualitative method is used in this research. The basic process of it is to determine variables according to the transcriptions of the accident reports or interview; and then determine each variable's scope of variance, and at last form the related  coding book.  Each transcription was coded by the three coders independently, and then was checked together. Differences were discussed and resolved with the majority rule.
The pilot study consists two parts. One is the semi-construct interview, with 15 employees of a nuclear power station were interviewed. The other is focus group interview. Seven subject matter experts from nuclear power, spaceflight, civil aviation, chemical industry, and petrochemicals industry attended the interview. The focus of the interview is also about the organizational errors, including Chinese reality and ideal. Then the further researches and hypotheses can be determined.
The materials of the reanalysis are nuclear power accident reports. Three experts were asked to judge the organizational errors according to’ the coding book and accidents description. Three other experts were asked to tell if the accidents were well handled, if yes, the accident is successful or is unsuccessful, and the results were used as criteria.
There are 78 interviewees from two civil aviation companies, two control center,and one aircraft maintenance company.  including 28 pilots, 33 controllers,  17 maintenance persons. Criteria data is from the statistic data of Civil Aviation
Administration of China and the appraisal of the pilots.
The results are as the following:
1 Through cluster analysis, got five organizational errors in nuclear power field, technical control factors, non-technical  factors,  information  interface,  organizational planning, lack of holistic thinking.
2 According to the reanalysis, successful accident represented good technical   supports.  The immature non-technical factors' contributing effect is relatively     more than the mature technical control factors'.
3  According to the coders' subjective judge, got three organizational errors in civil  aviation  field:  technical  control- factors,  non-technical  factors,  information interface.
4 Comparing to the maintenance persons, the pilots are more strict with the
  departure standard of the aircraft.
5 The controllers will consider the role of their job as "controller", and pilots will look the role of the controller as control service or service.

语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21671
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
李永娟. 组织错误的表现与类型一核电与民航的研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2002.
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