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汉语歧义消解过程及其抑制机制的研究
其他题名The Inhibition Mechanism for Resolving the Ambiguity in Chinese Language Recognition
周治金
学位类型博士
导师陈永明
2001-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
关键词歧义词 歧义句 歧义消解 激活 抑制
摘要

    语言歧义是语一言的一种比较普遍的现象。为了难确理解词或句子的意义,当读者或听者遇到歧义词或歧义句时,他需要从儿个意义中选择一个合适的意义,并抑制其它不适当的意义。本研究通过八个实验系统探讨了语言歧义消解过程中的抑制机制。实验一到实验四采用词汇判断任务,考察了词语境和句子语境中同形同音歧义词和同音歧义词歧义消解过程中的自动抑制机制;实验五和实验六采用意义适合性判断任务探讨了对歧义词不适当意义的有意识抑制机制;实验七和实验八采用句子验证任务探讨了对歧义句不适当意义的有意识抑制机制。
    主要结果和结论如下:
    1.词语境和句子语境都可以影响词汇歧义消解的过程。词语境的作用有赖于刺激呈现的方式和歧义词的性质。
    2.相对意义频率在词汇歧义消解中有其影响。对歧义词主要意义的抑制较晚而且较难,对歧义词的次要意义的抑制较早而且较易。相对意义频率的作用依赖于语境的意义偏向性、歧义词类别以及时间等因素的作用。
3.同形同音歧义词与同音歧义词歧义消解的过程存在差别。在同音歧义词歧义消解过程中抑制机制起作用较早,而同形同音歧义词歧义消解过程中抑制机制起作用较晚。
    4.实验任务的复杂程度影响词汇歧义消解的时间进程。实验任务越难,歧义消解所需的时间也越长。更重要的是,不同的实验任务引发了不同的抑制机制。词汇判断任务引发了自动抑制,意义适合性判断或句子验证任务引发了有意识的抑制。
    5.在句子歧义消解的过程中,前语境的作用优于后语境。与固定速度阅读方式相比,自控速度阅读方式可以提高被试的作业成绩,但是并没有改善被试的抑制效率。
    本研究首次采用词语境探讨词汇歧义消解的过程。研究发现汉语同音歧义词与同形同音歧义词歧义消解过程存在明显差异,与英语词汇歧义的消解过程也存在某些差别。另外,还发现对歧义词或歧义句的不适当意义的抑制具有不同的强度。结合本研究的结果,本文对结构建构框架作了一些补充。

其他摘要

    Ambiguity is an omnipresent phenomenon in language system. When ambiguous words were read or heard, an appropriate meaning should be selected from activated meanings while all the other inappropriate meanings were inhibited. Eight experiments were conducted to explore the inhibition mechanism for resolving the lexical and syntactic ambiguity. Lexical decision task was used in the first four experiments, semantic consistency task was used in experiment 5 and experiment 6, sentence
verification task was used in the last two experiments.
    The main results and conclusions are as follows:
    1  The processes of both lexical and syntactic ambiguity resolving were affected by the context.Word context had effects on homophones, but it had no effect on homographs.
    2  The meaning frequency had effect on the lexical ambiguity resolution, whereas the effect depended on context, SOA and the types of homonym. It was more difficult to inhibit dominant meaning of ambiguous words than inhibit subordinate meanings.
    3  There were some differences in the resolution of homographs and homophones. Inhibition mechanism worked earlier in resolution of homophones than in homographs.    4  The complexity of task was an important variable in the lexical ambiguity resolution. The more complex was the task, the later was the resolution for lexical ambigui诊Moreover, there were different inhibition mechanisms corresponding to different tasks.
    5  Precontext was superior to postcontext in syntactic ambiguity resolution. Compared with forced-pace conditions, self-pace conditions could improve the correct rates of response, but it had no effect on the inhibition mechanism.
    In this study, inhibition mechanism was focused in comprehension of Chinese language ambiguity,and word context was first used in lexical ambiguity resolution. Based on the result, it was proposed that inhibition strength was continuous.

语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21686
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
周治金. 汉语歧义消解过程及其抑制机制的研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2001.
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