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内外部线索在学习判断中的作用
其他题名The Influence of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Cues in Judgment of Learning
陈功香
学位类型博士
导师傅小兰
2004-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业基础心理学
关键词学习判断 内部线索 外部线索 准确性
摘要

    学习判断(judgment of learning,简称为JOL)是对当前已经学过的项目在以后回忆测验中成绩的预见性判断。学习判断按其发生时间的不同可以分为即刻学习判断和延迟学习判断。产生机制和准确性是学习判断研究的两个核心问题。Koriat的线索模型总结了以往的研究发现,认为学习判断基于内部线索、外部线索和一记忆线索之上,并且认为外部线索在预测回忆成绩时的作用会被学习判断低估。Koriat线索模型得到很多实验的支持,但是也面临挑战。较具代表性的是Dunlosky和Matvey C 2001)的研究,他们发现学习判断并不总是低估外部线索在回忆成绩上的作用。本研究针对学习判断研究中存在争议的问题,通过11个实验,进一步系统地考察内外部线索在学习判断中的作用。
本研究有以下主要发现:
1.内部线索对学习判断和回忆成绩均有显著影响,而且在不同呈现方式下内部线索的作用是稳定的。
2.在预测回忆成绩时外部线索的作用经常被学习判断低估,而且在不同呈现方式下外部线索的作用是不稳定的。
3.内外部线索存在交互作用,内部线索可能会掩蔽外部线索的作用。
4.学习判断中存在孤立效应,该效应不仅受关键项目所处位置的影响,而且受到关键项目与背景项目所属类别以及知觉属性的影响。
5.在预测回忆成绩时,多模态信息呈现的作用被学习判断低估,人们在多模态信息呈现条件下宜延迟做判断。
6.就学习判断的相对准确性而一言,学习判断值与回忆成绩只有中等程度的延迟学习判断优于即刻学习判断,自定速度学习条件下的学习判断优于固定速度条件下的学习判断;就绝对准确性而言,被试在做判断时经常出现高估,表现出过度自信。

其他摘要

   Judgment of learning (JOL) is the prediction about the future performance of learned materials. JOL can be divided into immediate-JOL and delayed-JOL according to the timing of occurrence. Its mechanism and accuracy are the key issues in the study of JOL. Researchers have advanced many theories to illuminate these two issues from different perspectives. Koriat' cue-utilization framework summarized the previous findings and provided a significant advance in understanding how people make JOL. His model is based on the distinction between three general classes of cues for JOL: intrinsic, extrinsic, and mnemonic cues. Koriat considered that the effect of extrinsic factors would be discounted by JOL in predicting future recall performance. Although many research supported Koriat's model, it also faced new challenges.Dunlosky and Matvey (2001) found that the effect of extrinsic cues was not always discounted. Aiming at the argument of previous research, eleven experiments were conducted to further explore the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic cues on JOL.
The results of the present study indicated that: (a) Relatedness exerted similar effects on both JOL and recall performance, and its effect was stable in different presentation presentation modes; (b) the effect of extrinsic cues was not stable in different modes and was often discounted in predicting recall performance by JOL;(c) there was interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic cues, and the effect of extrinsic cues might be overshadowed by intrinsic cue; (d) isolation effect occurred in JOL, however, it was influenced not influenced by the  category  and only by the perceptual position of critical item, but also was attribute  between critical  item  and background items; (e) the multimodal information was discounted in predicting recall performance, and learners might make delayed judgment in multimodal condition; and(f) as performance for  the  relative  accuracy,  the  correlation  between  prediction was generally moderate, the relative accuracy of delayed-JOL higher than that of immediate-JOL, and the accuracy of judgment was higher in self-paced learning condition than in fixed-rate learning condition; as for the absolute accuracy, participants were inclined to be overconfident in making predictions.

语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21689
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
陈功香. 内外部线索在学习判断中的作用[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2004.
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