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工作机会、员工态度对离职行为影响的个体差异研究
其他题名The Interactive Effect of Job Opportunity and Employee's Attitude on Voluntary Turnover: An Individual Differences Perspective
胡卫鹏
学位类型博士
导师时勘
2004-06
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业应用心理学
关键词工作机会 员工一组织匹配 组织承诺 满意感 工作搜寻 离职意向/行为
摘要

   本研究采用文献研究、问卷调查和专家讨论等方法,在对2000余名被试的问卷调查和追踪研究的基础上,选取员工的实际离职数据为指标,从微观的心理层面探讨了工作机会和员工态度(主要包括满意感和组织承诺)与离职意向、离职行为的关系,着重考察了员工的个体差异。研究发现:
第一、员工对企业特性、企业吸引力和工作机会的评价是三个相互联系且有显著区别的心理状态,员工对不同所有制类型企业(外资企业、国有企业和民营企业)特性的评价存在显著性差异。总体来说,外资企业对员工有最大的吸引力,不同风险偏好和压力承受度的员工在对国有企业和民营企业吸引力的评价上有显著性差异,具体表现为,偏好风险和压力承受度大的员工认为民营企业有较大吸引力,而回避风险和压力承受度小的员工认为国有企业有较大吸引力;在某类型企业对员工有较大吸引力的情况下,社会关系多、自我效能感强和技能迁移性高的员工认为自己有较多的工作机会。
第二、作为重要的态度变量之一,组织承诺的不同维度对离职意向有交互的影响作用:规范承诺主要通过情感承诺的中介作用影响离职意向;员工对公司的情感承诺和规范承诺的增强,能够显著地减弱知觉到的损失对离职意向的预测作用。
    第三、满意感/组织承诺在结构性变量/离职意向的关系中起中介作用,不同类型的结构性变量影响离职意向的作用机制是不同的:角色模糊,角色冲突,辅助性支持,分配型公平和过程型公平等与工作特性相关的因素通过影响满意感对离职意向产生影响;而关系,领导风格和能力一工作匹配等与组织和领导相关的因素通过组织承诺影响离职意向。
    第四、工作机会和员工态度能显著地预测员工的离职意向,员工态度对离职意向的预测作用要显著地强于工作机会;同时,工作机会和离职意向对工作搜寻行为有显著的预测作用。研究还发现,虽然离职意向和工作搜寻行为都会影响到员工实际的离职行为,但离职意向在其中的影响作用更大。

其他摘要

  This research investigates the reasons one voluntarily leaves an organization from two aspects: the outer-pull一factor (job opportunity) and the inner-push-factor (employee's attitude, mainly including of satisfaction and organizational commitement), it's an individual一level research that emphasizes the individual differences among the relationship of job opportunity-attitude-voluntary turnover which reflected by the actural turnover behavior.
There are three sub-studies: Employees' perception and evalution toward job opportunity, the relationship between employee's attitude and their voluntary turnover intention (which includes of two studies: organizational commitment and turnover intention, structural variables, attitude variables and turnover intention), job opportunity, attitude and voluntary turnover. About 2000 participants took part in this research and EFA, CFA, Hierarchical Regression Analyses, SEM and other statistics methods were used to test hypotheis. The following are our main findings:
   1 .There are significant differences among participant's evaluation to different enterprise attributions; foreign invested enterprises attract employee most, but there is interactive effect between individual differences and enterprise's ownership on the attraction evaluation, risk preference and tolance to stress are two moderators on this relationship; moreover, some other individual differences serve as the moderators among the relationship of attraction evaluation and perception of job opportunity, English level is the moderator between the relationship of the attraction of foreign invest enterprise- perception of job oppotuinity, guanxi, self efficiency and general training are important moderators between this relationship.
  2. The sub-dimensions of organizational commitment can interactively influence turnover intention,normative commitment can influence turnover intention through the mediate effect of affective commitment, nc and ac also can interactively influence turnover intention; then ac and lost, nc and lost will interactively influence turnover intention.
  3. Satisfaction and organizational connnitement serve as mediators between structural variables and turnover intention, but they have different mechanism, role ambugity, role conflice, assistant support,distribute justice and procedural justice are the antecedents of satisfaction and guanxi, leadership, ability-job fit are the antecedents of organizational commitment.
  4. Job opportunity and employees' attitude can significantly predict turnover intention, job opportunity and turnover intention are the antecedents of job search behavior, the turnover intention and job search behavioe can influence employees' voluntary turnover behavior.

语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21696
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
胡卫鹏. 工作机会、员工态度对离职行为影响的个体差异研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2004.
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