Transformational Leadership is one of the most popular topics of western leadership researches since 1980s，and also has become the new paradigm of leadership research. However there are few empirical researches related to transformational leadership in China. What is the structure of transformational leadership in China? Is it different from the western structure? What are the relationships between transformational leadership and leadership effectiveness at individual and group level? What is the mechanism of transformational leadership at individual and group level? This research was designed to answer these questions.
The structure of transformational leadership,the measurement of transformational leadership, the difference among transformational leadership,PM and Paternalistic leadership, the relationship between transformational leadership and OCB, the mechanism of transformational at individual and group level were explored by using open questionnaire, structural questionnaire and experts discussion. More than 3,000 subjects were surveyed，and EFA, CFA, Hierarchical Regression Analyses, Canonical Correlation, SEM and other statistics methods were used. The following is our main findings:
Firstly, inductive methods was used to explore the structure of transformational. leadership and the result show that transformational leadership is a four dimensions structure which includes articulate vision，morale modeling, charisma and individual consideration. Reliability analysis,item analysis, EFA and CFA show the reliability and validity of the transformational leadership questionnaire we designed is good enough, the design of the item is effectively and properly. Contrast to other researches,morale modeling emphasis leader's morale behavior's modeling effect on subordinate, and individual consideration include leader's consideration on subordinate's life and family besides western individual consideration.
Secondly, the comparison of transformational leadership, PM and paternalistic leadership showed that transformational leadership added unique variance beyond PM and paternalistic leadership for understanding leadership effectiveness which told us transformational leadership is a more power predictor to leadership effectiveness than PM and paternalistic leadership.
Thirdly, hierarchical regression analyses and canonical correlation showed that there were statistically significant relationships between transformational leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior.
Fourthly, results based on structure equation modeling using Amos indicated that articulate vision and morale modeling had only indirect effects on leadership effectiveness mediating through psychological empowerment;however charisma and individual consideration had only direct effects on leadership effectiveness.
Fifthly, results based on hierarchical regression analyses indicated that charisma had only indirect effect on group satisfaction and group cohesion mediating through group cooperation, and individual consideration also had only indirect effect on group satisfaction and group performance mediating through group cooperation. Thus it can be seen that the relationships between transformational leadership, group cooperation and group effectiveness is consistent with I一P-O model at a certain extent.