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注意、工作记忆负荷对前瞻性记忆及其年龄差异的影响
Alternative TitleProspective Memory and Aging:The Influence of Attention and Working Memory Load
王青
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor杨玉芳
2002-06
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline基础心理学
Keyword前瞻性记忆 年龄差异 背景任务 注意 工作记忆负荷
Abstract

    前瞻性记忆指对将来做某件事情的记忆。研究者对于前瞻性记忆和年龄的关系虽然已经进行了大量研究,但是仍有很多争论。为探讨背景任务,注意和工作记忆负荷对前瞻性记忆以及年龄差异的影响,采用把前瞻性记忆线索镶嵌在不同背景任务(包括类别判断,知觉判断,工作记忆)的方法,分别进行了七个实验。
    结果如下:
    1背景任务对青年和老年人影响一致时,基于事件的前瞻性记忆任务无年龄差异,基于时间的前瞻性记忆任务年龄差异显著;
    2背景任务和前瞻性记忆任务的相容性影响前瞻性记忆成绩。当两者要求的对刺激的加工水平不一致时,年龄差异显著:
    3注意资源增加提高了青年和老年人基于事件的前瞻性记忆成绩;但对基于时间的前瞻性记忆无影响;
    4工作记忆负荷对基于事件的前瞻性记忆有影响。工作记忆负荷高时,对青年和老年人成绩都有损害;
    5工作记忆负荷对基于时间的前瞻性记忆有影响,对老年人的影响更大。
    综上所述,对基于事件的前瞻性记忆和年龄的关系比较复杂,要根据前瞻性记忆的特点具体分析,而对基于时间的前瞻性记忆来说,则存在显著的年龄差异。基于时间的前瞻性记忆更容易老化。认知资源减少,注意功能减退是前瞻性记忆能力下降的主要原因。

Other Abstract

    Prospective memory involves remembering to do something in the future.There are many studies about the relation between prospective memory and aging. But there is still considerable controversy. In order to examine the  effect  of  background  task,  attention,  working  memory  load  on prospective memory and age-related difference, using the method embedding prospective memory into different background tasks (including category judgment, perception judgment, working memory),seven experiments were explored.
The results were as follows:
    1 .When the effect of background was same to the young and the old adults, there was no age difference in event-based prospective memory, but age difference was found in time-based prospective memory.
    2. The congruence of background task performance of prospective  memory.When they required different levels of process, the age difference was they required different
significant.
    3. When more attentional resource was allocated to event-based prospective memory, the performance of the young and七he old adults were improved memory.
   4. working memory load influences event-based prospective momory.When working memory  load was  high,  the  performance  of  event-based prospective memory was impaired.
    5.  Working mem6ry load affected the time-based prospective memory, and the effect was more on the old than on the young adults.In conclusion, the relationship between the event-based prospective memory and aging was  complex,even-based prospective memory.it was determined by the character of To the time-based prospective memory,there was age-related deficit. Time-based prospective memory was more sensitive to aging than event-based prospective memory. Resource deficit and attention decline were the main reasons of prospective memory aging.

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21705
Collection认知与发展心理学研究室
Affiliation中国科学院心理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王青. 注意、工作记忆负荷对前瞻性记忆及其年龄差异的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2002.
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