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学前儿童推测他人情绪和愿望能力的发展
其他题名The Development of Preschooler's Ability to Infer Others' Emotion and Desire
杨小冬
学位类型博士
导师方格
2003-06
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业发展与教育心理学
关键词学前儿童 情绪 愿望 信念 情绪归因 心理理论
摘要

    本研究围绕愿望和情绪的基本关系,系统测查了3, 4, 5岁儿童在各种情景中根据他人愿望推测他人情绪以及根据他人情绪推测他人愿望的能力发展过程和特点,同时测查了学前儿童对信念和愿望关系的认知发展。主要结果如下:
    1)受观点采择能力和社会经验的制约,3岁和4岁儿童推测他人情绪的成绩随具体情景条件的变化而变化,缺乏稳定性。5岁儿童在推测他人情绪时基本摆脱了具体情景条件的制约,在各种情景中的表现相对稳定。学前儿童根据他人愿望推测他人情绪的能力随年龄增长而提高。
    2)各年龄儿童不同程度地受到情绪理解水平的限制和程式知识的影响,推测他人愿望的成绩随具体情景条件的变化而变化,5岁儿童的表现显著好于3岁和4岁儿童。学前儿童推测他人愿望的能力随年龄的增长而提高。
    3) 3岁儿童对他人情绪进行归因的水平较低,主要表现为不回答或作无关解释。4岁儿童主要以客观结果解释他人情绪。5岁儿童的情绪归因水平显著提高,主要结合主客观因素解释他人情绪。学前儿童对情绪和愿望关系的认识水平随年龄的增长而提高。对愿望和情绪关系的认识在4到5 岁间有一个快速发展期。
    4)3岁儿童在区分事实和错误信念的任务上还存在困难,不能确定愿望是建立在信念基础上还是建立在事实基础上。4岁和5岁儿童能够正确认识事实、信念和愿望间的关系,认识到愿望不是直接建立在客观事实基础上而是建立在个体的信念基础上。

其他摘要

  Focusing on the relationship between desire and emotion, the present study investigated 3一,4- and 5-year-old children's ability to infer others' emotion according to desire cues and their ability to infer others' desire according to emotional cues in different situations. Their understanding of relationship between belief and desire was also studied. The results suggested that:
  1)Preschooler's ability to infer others' emotion according to desire cues increased with age. Limited by perspective taking ability and social experiences, the 3一and 4- year olds' performance on inferring others' emotion varied with situations, showing unstability. 5-year- olds were not significantly restricted by situations. Their performance was stable.
  2)Preschooler's ability to infer others' desire according to emotional cues increased with age. Limited by emotional understanding level and influenced by script knowledge, preschooler's performance on inferring other's desire varied with situations. 5-year-old children performed significantly better than 3一and 4-year-olds.
  3)3-year-olds often did not know how to explain other's emotion. 4 -year-olds tended to attribute other's emotion to objective outcomes. 5-year-olds were able to combine desire with outcome to explain other's emotion. Preschooler's understanding of relationship  between desire  and  emotion increased with age. There existed a rapid development period  between the age 4 and 5.
  4)It's difficult for 3-year-olds to distinguish fact from others' false belief and most of them were not able to understand that desire was based on belief. 4-and 5-year-olds were able to understand the connections among fact, belief and desire. They could realize that desire was directly determined by people's belief instead of fact.

语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21711
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
杨小冬. 学前儿童推测他人情绪和愿望能力的发展[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2003.
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