|其他题名||The Development of Preschooler's Ability to Infer Others' Emotion and Desire
本研究围绕愿望和情绪的基本关系，系统测查了3, 4, 5岁儿童在各种情景中根据他人愿望推测他人情绪以及根据他人情绪推测他人愿望的能力发展过程和特点，同时测查了学前儿童对信念和愿望关系的认知发展。主要结果如下:
3) 3岁儿童对他人情绪进行归因的水平较低，主要表现为不回答或作无关解释。4岁儿童主要以客观结果解释他人情绪。5岁儿童的情绪归因水平显著提高，主要结合主客观因素解释他人情绪。学前儿童对情绪和愿望关系的认识水平随年龄的增长而提高。对愿望和情绪关系的认识在4到5 岁间有一个快速发展期。
Focusing on the relationship between desire and emotion, the present study investigated 3一，4- and 5-year-old children's ability to infer others' emotion according to desire cues and their ability to infer others' desire according to emotional cues in different situations. Their understanding of relationship between belief and desire was also studied. The results suggested that:
1)Preschooler's ability to infer others' emotion according to desire cues increased with age. Limited by perspective taking ability and social experiences, the 3一and 4- year olds' performance on inferring others' emotion varied with situations, showing unstability. 5-year- olds were not significantly restricted by situations. Their performance was stable.
2)Preschooler's ability to infer others' desire according to emotional cues increased with age. Limited by emotional understanding level and influenced by script knowledge, preschooler's performance on inferring other's desire varied with situations. 5-year-old children performed significantly better than 3一and 4-year-olds.
3)3-year-olds often did not know how to explain other's emotion. 4 -year-olds tended to attribute other's emotion to objective outcomes. 5-year-olds were able to combine desire with outcome to explain other's emotion. Preschooler's understanding of relationship between desire and emotion increased with age. There existed a rapid development period between the age 4 and 5.
4)It's difficult for 3-year-olds to distinguish fact from others' false belief and most of them were not able to understand that desire was based on belief. 4-and 5-year-olds were able to understand the connections among fact, belief and desire. They could realize that desire was directly determined by people's belief instead of fact.
杨小冬. 学前儿童推测他人情绪和愿望能力的发展[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2003.