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4 ~ 6 岁儿童在分配情境下的公平敏感性研究
其他题名Fairness Sensitivity of Children Aged 4 to 6 under Allocation Situation
贾艳红1,2; 施建农1,3; 张真1
2017
发表期刊中国全科医学
通讯作者邮箱zhangzhen@ psych. ac. cn
ISSN1007-9572
文章类型期刊论文
卷号20期号:22页码:2783-2787
摘要

摘要:目的探讨4~6岁儿童在分配情境下的公平敏感性。方法于2013年4—7月,选取北京市两所普通幼儿园共108例4~6岁儿童进行试验。考察其在匿名、不同成本条件(无成本、低成本、高成本)和不同公平程度(低不公平、高不公平)情境下,同时作为资源分配的决定者和接受者时的公平项选择率。结果在低不公平情境中:无成本时,4岁儿童未显示出对公平的偏好(22/36,P>0.05),5、6岁儿童显示出对公平的偏好(30/36、30/36,P<0.05);低成本时,4、5、6岁儿童均未显示出对公平的偏好(13/36、20/36、22/36,P>0.05);高成本时,4、5岁儿童显示为拒绝公平项(6/36、8/36,P<0.05),6岁儿童未显示出对公平的偏好(17/36,P>0.05)。无成本时,5、6岁儿童公平项选择率高于4岁,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);低成本时,6岁儿童公平项选择率高于4岁,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);高成本时,4、5岁儿童公平项选择率低于6岁,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。在高不公平情境中:无成本时,4、5岁儿童未显示出对公平的偏好(22/36、24/36,P>0.05),6岁儿童显示出对公平的偏好(31/36,P<0.05);低成本时,4、5、6岁儿童均未显示出对公平的偏好(16/36、19/36、21/36,P>0.05);高成本时,4岁儿童显示为拒绝公平项(4/36,P<0.05),5、6岁儿童未显示出对公平的偏好(14/36、18/36,P>0.05)。无成本时,6岁儿童公平项选择率高于4、5岁,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);低成本时,4~6岁儿童公平项选择率比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);高成本时,4岁儿童的公平项选择率低于5、6岁,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论 4~6岁儿童的公平敏感性随年龄增长逐步发展,有无成本、成本大小及不公平程度均对其公平行为存在影响。对公平的偏好和对自我利益的考虑共同决定着儿童的分配决策,随着儿童年龄的增长,对公平的偏好逐渐占主导地位。

其他摘要

Objective To explore the fair sensitivity of children aged 4 to 6 years under allocation situation. Methods In April - July 2013,a total of 108 children aged 4 to 6 years were selected from two ordinary kindergartens in Beijing to explore their rate of selecting fair options both as the decision maker and the recipient of the resource allocation in the case of anonymous,different cost conditions ( no cost,low cost,high cost) and different fairness ( low unfair and highly unfair) .Results In the low unfair situation: 4 - year - old children did not show a fair preference at no cost ( 22 /36,P > 0. 05) ,despite 5 - 6 - year - old children showed a fair preference ( 30 /36,30 /36,P < 0. 05) ; children aged 4,5 and 6 did not show a fair preference at low cost ( 13 /36,20 /36,22 /36,P > 0. 05) ; At high cost,children aged 4,5 refused to select the fair options ( 6 /36,8 /36,P < 0. 05) and 6 - year - old children showed no preference for fairness ( 17 /36,P > 0. 05) . When there was no cost,the differences were statistically significant ( P < 0. 05) as the rate of selecting fair options of children aged 5 and 6 was higher than that of 4 - year - old children,respectively; At low cost,children aged 6 had higher rate of selecting fair options than those aged 4 ( P < 0. 05) ; At high cost,the rate of selecting fair options for children aged 4 and 5 was lower than that of 6 years old ( P < 0. 05) . In the highly unfair situation: children aged 4 and 5 did not show a fair preference at no cost ( 22 /36,24 /36,P > 0. 05) ,despite 6 - year - old children showed a fair preference ( 31 /36,P < 0. 05) ; at low cost,children aged 4,5 and 6 did not show a fair preference ( 16 /36,19 /36,21 /36,P > 0. 05) ; At high cost,4 - year - old children refused to select the fair options ( 4 /36,P < 0. 05 ) ,and children aged 5 and those aged 6 did not show a fair preference ( 14 /36,18 /36,P > 0. 05) . When there was no cost,the differences were statistically significant ( P < 0. 05) as the rate of selecting fair options of 6 - year - old children was higher than that of children aged 4 and those aged 5; At low cost,there was no significant difference in the rate of selecting fair options between children aged 4 - 6 years ( P > 0. 05) ; At high cost,4 - year - old children had significantly lower rate of selecting fair options than children aged 5 - 6 ( P < 0. 05 ) .Conclusion The fair sensitivity of children aged 4 to 6 gradually increases with age. Their fair behavior is affected by the cost and its size and degree of unfairness of the allocation situation. The fair preference and the consideration of self - interest together determine the children' s decision - making of allocation. With the growth of children' s age, the fair preference gradually dominates.

关键词儿童心理学 公平敏感性 分配情境
DOI10. 3969 /j. issn. 1007 - 9572. 2017. 22. 019
URL查看原文
收录类别CSCD
语种中文
项目资助者国家自然科学基金青年科学基金资助项目( 31000469)
引用统计
文献类型期刊论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21757
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
通讯作者张真
作者单位1.中国科学院行为科学重点实验室中国科学院心理研究所
2.中国科学院大学
3.奥尔堡大学学习与哲学系
第一作者单位中国科学院行为科学重点实验室
通讯作者单位中国科学院行为科学重点实验室
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
贾艳红,施建农,张真. 4 ~ 6 岁儿童在分配情境下的公平敏感性研究[J]. 中国全科医学,2017,20(22):2783-2787.
APA 贾艳红,施建农,&张真.(2017).4 ~ 6 岁儿童在分配情境下的公平敏感性研究.中国全科医学,20(22),2783-2787.
MLA 贾艳红,et al."4 ~ 6 岁儿童在分配情境下的公平敏感性研究".中国全科医学 20.22(2017):2783-2787.
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