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3~5岁儿童助人与分享行为的发展特点及影响因素研究
Alternative TitleCharacteristics of Development and Influential Factors of the Helping and Sharing Behavior in 3 - 5 - year - old Preschool Children
毕岢1,2; 吴丽芸3; 施建农1,4; 张真1
2017
Source Publication中国全科医学
Correspondent Emailzhangzhen@ psych. ac. cn
ISSN1007-9572
Subtype期刊论文
Volume20Issue:19Pages:2407-2413,2418
Abstract

目的探讨3~5岁儿童助人与分享行为的发展特点及影响因素,为两类不同亲社会行为间存在的差异提供解释。方法于2013年5—7月,选取北京市某一私立教育集团2所幼儿园3~5岁儿童108例进行助人和分享试验,对其父母进行问卷调查,对其中参加试验并且父母问卷有效的被试94例进行研究。其中助人试验为捡东西任务,分享试验为独裁者任务;调查问卷包括《幼儿气质问卷》和《教养方式问卷》,分别采用儿童行为问卷简版(CBQ)、父母教养方式和维度问卷(PSDQ)进行测量。结果儿童助人与分享行为得分的平均值分别为2.5、1.2分;外向性、消极情绪、努力控制得分的平均值分别为4.6、4.2、5.0分;母亲权威型教养方式、母亲专制型教养方式、父亲权威型教养方式、父亲专制型教养方式得分的平均值分别为3.9、2.0、3.7、1.8分。儿童助人与分享行为得分无直线相关性(r=-0.08,P=0.64)。分层回归分析结果显示,在第一、二、三层回归分析中,月龄均能正向预测儿童助人行为得分(β值分别为0.46、0.45、0.43,P<0.05);在第三层回归分析中,父亲专制型教养方式得分能正向预测儿童助人行为得分(β=0.26,P<0.05),母亲专制型教养方式得分能正向预测儿童分享行为得分(β=0.25,P<0.05)。结论助人和分享这两种亲社会行为在儿童早期有不同的发展特点,并且分别只受到父亲或母亲专制教养方式的影响,提示这两种亲社会行为有着相对独立的发展过程。

Other Abstract

Objective This study investigated the developmental diversity of the helping and sharing behavior in 3 - 5 - year - old children,as well as parenting style and children's temperament influence on them,so as to offer some explanations for the diversity between two specific prosocial behavior categories. Methods From May to July 2013,108 3 - 5 - year - old children were sampled from 2 kindergartens of a private education group for helping task ( picking up something for others) and sharing task ( dictator game ) ,and their parents received a questionnaire survey, filling out the Children' s Behavior Questionnaire Short Form ( CBQ) and Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire ( PSDQ) . The final participants were 94 children participating in the task and their parents returned responsive questionnaires. Results In the participants,the average scores of children' s helping behavior,sharing behavior,surgency,negative affectivity and effortful control were 2. 5,1. 2,4. 6,4. 2 and 5. 0,respectively; and those of mother' s authoritative parenting style,mother' s authoritarian parenting style,father's authoritative parenting style,father's authoritarian parenting style were 3. 9,2. 0,3. 7 and 1. 8 respectively. Children's helping behavior scores had no linear correlation with sharing behavior scores ( r = - 0. 08,P = 0. 64) . Analyses with three -level hierarchical regression models found that age positively predicted children's helping behavior ( β = 0. 46,0. 45,0. 43,P< 0. 05) ; analysis based on the third hierarchical regression model revealed that father's authoritarian parenting style positively predicted children's helping behavior ( β = 0. 26,P < 0. 05) ,while mother's authoritarian parenting style positively predicted children's sharing behavior ( β = 0. 25,P < 0. 05) . Conclusion Helping and sharing behavior display different characteristics of development in early childhood and only can be affected by father's or mother's authoritarian parenting style respectively in this study,which imply that these two prosocial behavior categories have relatively unique developmental trajectories.

Keyword儿童 亲社会行为 分享行为 助人行为 父母教养方式 气质
DOI10. 3969 /j. issn. 1007 - 9572. 2017. 19. 022
URL查看原文
Indexed ByCSCD
Language中文
Funding Organization国家自然科学基金青年项目(31000469)
Citation statistics
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21773
Collection认知与发展心理学研究室
Corresponding Author张真
Affiliation1.中国科学院心理研究所行为科学重点实验室
2.中国科学院大学
3.北京师范大学脑与认知科学研究院认知神经科学与学习国家重点实验室
4.丹麦奥尔堡,奥尔堡大学学习与哲学系
First Author AffilicationInstitute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Corresponding Author AffilicationInstitute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
毕岢,吴丽芸,施建农,等. 3~5岁儿童助人与分享行为的发展特点及影响因素研究[J]. 中国全科医学,2017,20(19):2407-2413,2418.
APA 毕岢,吴丽芸,施建农,&张真.(2017).3~5岁儿童助人与分享行为的发展特点及影响因素研究.中国全科医学,20(19),2407-2413,2418.
MLA 毕岢,et al."3~5岁儿童助人与分享行为的发展特点及影响因素研究".中国全科医学 20.19(2017):2407-2413,2418.
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