|Alternative Title||An Experiment on Preschooler's Gender Development
|Place of Conferral||北京
1)学前儿童性别恒常性发展表现为从低水平到高水平的过渡，可以划分为3个 水平:3, 4岁儿童主要处于性别认同水平，5岁的儿童处于性别稳定性水平， 6岁是性别一致性的快速发展期，处于性别一致性的水平，但只至6岁仍只有53. 3}的儿童完全获得性别恒常性。，如果降低实验任务难度，在提示条件下，6岁儿童完全获得性别恒常性。
3)性别稳定性的发展顺序是儿童先认识到近期将来的性别是不会变的，然后 是中期将来的性别、第三是过去的性别，最后是远期将来的性别;性别一致 性发展的顺序是儿童先认识到意图不能改变性别，然后再认识外部单特征的 变化不能改变性别，最后认识到外部双特征变化不能改变性别。
4)学前儿童性别类型活动的不同任务随着年龄发展有不同的发展趋势，3岁 儿童还没有玩具偏好，但是20%的3岁儿童己经表现出玩伴偏好，半数左右的4, 5岁儿童表现出玩具偏好和玩伴偏好，6岁儿童完全表现出玩具偏好，但只有63. 3%的6岁儿童表现出玩伴偏好;性别恒常性的不同水平与性别类型活动的关系不同，性别认同与两种性别类型活动存在相关，性别稳定性与玩具偏好存在相关，性别一致性与两种性别类型活动都不存在相关。
Children's gender development is an important part of socialization. This research was to explore the development of preschooler 's gender and influencing factor in order to propose the basis for education of preschooler. The subjects were 120 3-6 years old preschooler from kindergarten. Three studies were designed. Study I was to explore the development of preschooler's gender constancy. Study 2 was to examine the development of gender-typed activity and relation between gender-typed activity and gender constancy. Study 3 was to investigate the influence of genital knowledge on gender constancy.
The result suggested that:
1)Gender constancy develops in predictable sequence in the preschooler. The development can be divided into three level. The gender identity was acquired first in 3-4 years old children (Level I ),followed by gender stability in 5-year-old children(Level II ),and, finally, gender consistency developed speedily in 6 years old children(Level III). But there were 53.3% children acquiring gender constancy until 6 years old. If expriment task became easier, in the condition of giving a cue to children, 6 years old children acquired gender constancy.
2) Children 's gender constancy development for self is earlier than for others.
3) Development sequence of gender stability is: Firstly, preschooler understood gender can't change in the near future; secondly, gender in the past; thirdly, gender in the middle future; Finally, preschooler understood gender can't change in further future. Gender consistency developed sequence is that gender can't change with intention in the first instance, then a kind of transformation of appearance, finally, two kinds of transformation.
4)Different preschooler's gender-typed activities gradually develope with age in different step. 3 years old children had no sex-typed toy preferences and 20% had same-sex peer preferences. Around half of 4, 5 years old children had two gendered activities. 96.7% 6 years old children had sex-typed toy preferences and 66.7% had same-sex peer preferences. The relations between three gender constancy levels and gender-typed activities were difference. Gender identity was the strongest correlate of children's two gender-typed activities. Gender stability was only related to sex-typed toy preferences. There were no relation found between gender consistency and two gender-typed activities.
5)Studying genital knowledge can promote gender constancy growth. It improves 5-year-old children's understanding gender essence, but 4-year-old children can't.
范珍桃. 学前儿童性别角色发展的实验研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2004.
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