|其他题名||The development of 4-7 year-old children's understanding on goal-directed of living things
(1)儿童在目的指向性维度上进行生物与非生物区分的认知发展，受到领域知识的影响。随着年龄的增长，儿童的认知发展水平逐步提高，在无提示条件下，4岁儿童处于“矛盾混杂”的模式;5岁儿童处于“动物混杂”的模式;6岁和7岁儿童处于“生物混杂”的模式。经领域知识提示后，4, 5岁儿童发展到“生物混杂”的模式，6, 7岁儿童发展到生物的模式。
Researchers have been argued about whether preschoolers own a naive biology theory independent from their naive physics and naive psychology theory. To develop a theory-like understanding of the living world, it is important for children to understand that only living things can act to gain self-beneficial goal. This research examined 4-7 year-old children's distinction between living things and non-living things and their causality cognition using flash movies designed on the bases of goal-directed action which is one of the basic characteristics of living things to explore young children's naive biological theory. Results suggested that:
(1) Children's distinction between living things and non-living things was influenced by domain knowledge and grew better with age. When there was no cue knowledge presented, 4-year-olds were at a stage of contradiction complexity, Syear-olds were at a stage of animal complexity, 6-7 year-olds were at a stage of living things complexity; When cue knowledge was presented, 4 and 5一year-olds were at stage of living things complexity, and 6 and 7-year-olds were at stage of living things.
(2)Children's causality cognition of entity showed the following orders and stages: 4-year-olds understand plants, 5-year-olds can understand living things including animals and plants, and 6 and 7-year-olds have a good understanding of the three domains including animals, plants and non-livin things. The development of causality cognition of entity based was influenced by domain knowledge, but the models of causality cognition were not influenced.
(3)4-year-olds can explain the three kinds of human beings' biological goal-directed action (including eating, drinking water and sleeping) using non-intention biological reasoning. What's more, preschoolers can understand that the action of biplogical needs influenced by social and psychological factors. Biological cognition is developed with age.
(4) Age difference existed when understanding goal-directed action of novel entities: For 4-year-olds, goal-directed movement can elicit no more life judgments than aimless movement. However, 5-year-olds can identify living things and non-living things using the cue of goal-directed movement. Their judgments are influenced by track of movement rather than moving speed: more life judgments were made in the curvilinear movement than in the rectilineal movement.
卿素兰. 4-7岁儿童对生物目的指向性的认知发展研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2004.