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学前儿童对疾病的认知
Alternative TitlePreschoolers' understanding of illness
刘光仪
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor朱莉琪
2004-06
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline发展与教育心理学
Keyword儿童 疾病 朴素理论 朴素生物学 特殊领域知
Abstract

  近来,皮亚杰的普遍阶段论受到挑战,认知发展领域的一些研究表明学前儿童在人类基本知识的一些特殊领域中正在形成和发展“朴素理论”。学前儿童是否形成了朴素生物理论?这是当前研究者关注的焦点问题。
    Wellman & Gelinan (1992,  1998)和Hanato & Inagaki (1994)认为朴素生物学应该包括三个重要成分:(1)生物学的本体区分;(2)非意图的因果解释;
(3)因果解释的内在一致性。
    本研究以90名3-5岁儿童为被试,采用临床访谈法探察了学前儿童的疾病
认知,主要研究结果如下:
    (1)随着年龄的增长,3岁和4岁儿童首先认识到人和动物会生病,然后
逐渐根据疾病这一生物特征将生物和非生物区分开,5岁的儿童在难度较低的任
务上已能进行生物学的本体区分。
    (2) 4岁儿童就认识到疾病的产生和痊愈是不受意图直接控制的。
    (3)随着年龄的增长,越来越多的儿童采用生物学的原因来说明疾病。但5岁之前的儿童主要采用有关健康卫生的行为原因来解释疾病。
    以上研究结果表明,在疾病认知上,学前儿童的朴素生物学经历了这样一个发展过程:首先认识到疾病的非意图性,然后逐渐形成生物学的本体区分能力,最后发展到能够对疾病作出生物学的因果解释。
    (4)学前儿童的疾病认知存在个别差异。教育条件优组儿童的认知成绩好于教育条件劣组儿童的认知成绩。
    (5)学前儿童对疾病的认知存在个体内部差异,他们对不同实验任务、不同领域的认知表现出不平衡性。

Other Abstract

   Nowadays, Piaget's domain-general theory is questioned. Recent work in cognitive development suggests that preschoolers develop naive theory in some specific domain.  Whether children before school age possess a naive theory of biology is a hot issue Wellman&Gelman(1992) and Hatano&Inagaki (1994) argue that three important components constitute a naive theory. The first is a core ontological distinction in biological domain. The second is a non-intentional causal explanatory framework. The third is coherence. That is a mode inference which can produce consistent and reasonable prediction for attributes or behaviors of biological kinds.
    In the present research, 90 children of 3 to 5 years old were interviewed to assess their understanding of illness. Results showed as follows.
    (1) 3-and 4-year-old children knew that human and animals can get sick,whereas non-living things can't. With age, children became to know that pants also can get sick. 5-year-old children showed distinction between living and  Moll-hvlllg th111gS Ill terms of illness on the easier task.
    (2) Children even young as 4-year-old could recognize that illness is out of intentional control.
    (3) With age,}more and more children used biological causes to explain illness. But preschoolers primarily used behavioral causes relevant to health to explain illness .
    These results indicated that preschoolers gradually developed naive biology on
illness. At first, they recognized that illness is involuntary. Then, they became to develop a biological ontology. Finally, preschoolers used biological causes to explain illness.
    (4) There was individual difference on children's understanding of illness. Children coming from higher educational background outperformed the counterpart coming from lower educational background.
    (5) There was intra-individual difference on preschoolers' understanding of illness. Children showed different performance on different tasks and domains.

Subject Area心理学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21798
Collection认知与发展心理学研究室
Affiliation中国科学院心理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
刘光仪. 学前儿童对疾病的认知[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2004.
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