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信息结构和重音对话语理解的影响
其他题名Effects of Information Structure and Accent on Discourse Comprehension
王丹
学位类型博士
导师杨玉劳
2004-07
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业基础心理学
关键词话语理解 信息结构 重音 韵律特征
摘要

    本研究在话语结构、信息结构和韵律结构三个层面上,分别探讨了口语理解过程中的三个问题:新旧信息和重音的关系对话语理解的影响、重音对歧义代词判断的作用以及焦点和重音的关系对话语理解的影响。研究的核心是信息结构和重音之间的关系对汉语口语理解的影响。采用的研究方法是反应时和问答句匹配实验。
  本研究得出了以下结论:
    1、新信息重读、旧信息不重读,话语的信息状态和重读方式的匹配关系有助于理解的加工。在新信息条件下,听者将重读解释为先前话语中没有出现过的实体;在旧信息、条件下,听者将重读解释为话语先前语句中出现过的不在话语焦点的实体。
    2、口语中重读代词的解释受句法结构和韵律特征等多方面因素的影响。在不同的句法结构中,重读对听者注意焦点的转移起到不同的效果。在非平行结构的句式中,重读没有引起听者注意焦点转移到突显程度较低的代词先行语上,即歧义代词仍然解释为突显程度较高的代词第一个先行语;在平行结构的句式中,重读引起了听者注意焦点转移到突显程度较低的代词先行语上,即歧义代词解释为突显程度较低的代词的第二个先行语上。
    3、论元的焦点与重音的关系:新论元负载焦点必须重读;重读论元会将焦点投射到句子的高一级单元上,但动词必须重读;旧论元不负载焦点不必重读,但负载焦点的动词必须重读。
    4、修饰语的焦点与重音的关系:新的修饰语重读,旧的修饰语不重读;修饰语不投射焦点,即修饰语重读不将焦点投射到修饰语的中心语上。

其他摘要

    The research investigated the relationship among discourse structure, information structure and prosodic structure concerning the accented realization of New/Given, the effect of accented on pronoun decision, and the relationship between focus and accented. The research used the method of response time and question-answer pairs to focus on the relation between information structure and accent on discourse
comprehension processing in Chinese.
    The results of Experiment 1 and 2 showed that the listeners comprehended the sentences more quickly when New was accented and Given was not. In the condition of New, the listeners were more likely to interpret accented reference as new entity in discourse; in condition of Given, the listeners preferred to interpret accented reference as referring to previously mentioned nonfocused entity in discourse.
The results of Experiments 3 and 4 showed that syntactic structure and prosody influenced  on pronoun processing in Chinese.  An accented pronoun expressed different effect to shift attention in different syntactic structure. An accented pronoun didn't shift attention from the most salient entity in the discourse context to less salient entity in nonparallel structure sentences. The listeners preferred to interpret accented pronoun as the first antecedent of pronoun which was the most salient entity.
    In parallel structure sentence, the listeners were likely to interpret accented pronoun as the second antecedent which was the less salient entity. An accented pronoun shifted attention from the most salient entity to the less salient entity.
    The results of Experiment Sand 6 showed that new noun phrase received accent and given noun phrase did not, an new argument NP was effective to project broad focus to entire VP but verb must be accented, given argument phrase didn't load focus and didn't accent, and verb loaded focus to receive accent.
    Regarding the relation between focus and accenting, results from Experiments 7 and 8 generally indicated that new modify received accent and given modify didn't not, modify couldn't project focus.

学科领域心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21801
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
王丹. 信息结构和重音对话语理解的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2004.
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