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大学毕业生心境状况及其影响因素的研究
其他题名A Study of Mood States and Influential Factors among College Seniors
迟松
学位类型博士
导师林文娟
2004-06
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业生物心理学
关键词大学毕业生 心境 应激性因素 个性 社会支持
摘要

    为了对我国大学毕业生的心境状况及其影响因素进行研究,研究采用了心理测量学的方法,首次在中国大学生中修订了简明心境量表,并首次编制了大学毕业生应激性事件量表。通过纵向研究和横断法研究,对我国大学毕业生的心境状况进行了观测,并通过建立结构方程模型对心境与主要影响因素之间的关系进行了探讨。主要研究结果如:
    1.修订后的简明心境量表基本上保持了原量表的结构,具有较好的信效度;自编的大学毕业生应激性事件量表共包括5个因子,基本上反映了该群体可能遇到的应激性事件,信效度均达到了心理测量学的要求;
    2.大学毕业生的心境呈现波动性变化,早期具有较多的负性心境,但逐渐改善,而活力却逐渐下降。尽管学习压力在研究后期小于研究早期,它始终是发生率最高的应激性因素,而求职压力仅在研究后期出现较多:
    3.日常生活困扰和学习压力在纵向研究和横断法研究中,均被证实为大学毕业生负性心境的重要应激源,而求职压力对大学毕业生负性心境的作用仅在纵向研究中得到了证实。两种方法均表明,应激性事件对大学毕业生的活力状态影响很小;
    4.我国大学毕业生不善于利用社会支持调节心境,主观社会支持比客观社会支持可更有效地改善他们的心境状态。女生比男生更加焦虑且活力较少,经济自评差的学生负性心境较多;
    5.应激性事件是大学毕业生负性心境最重要的影响因素,其直接作用大于通过个性因素的间接作用;而社会支持只能通过个性的中介作用改善大学毕业生的负性心境,但作用较小。大学毕业生的活力状态主要受到社会支持的影响,其直接影响大于通过个性因素的间接影响;而应激性事件只能通过个性的中介作用影响大学毕业生的活力状态,但作用较小。性别和社会经济自评分别对大学毕业生的活力状态和负性心境产生显著影响,但作用较小。
    修订后的简明心境量表和自编的大学毕业生应激性事件量表符合心理测量学的要求。大学毕业生的心境呈波动性改变,应激性事件和社会支持分别是负性心境和活力状态最重要的影响因素,个性因素是重要的中介因素。性别和社会经济自评也有显著的影响。

其他摘要

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mood states and its influential factors among college seniors. Revision was made to BOMPS for the first time with Chinese college students,and the College Seniors Stress Scale was designed with psychometric method. Both longitudinal and cross-sectional approach was used}in this study, and the structure model was established between mood states and its main influential factors. The main findings for this study can be drawn as follows:
    (1) The dimensions of revised BOMPS can still justify the structure of the original one, and the reliability and validity are proved satisfactory. The self-designed College Seniors Stress Scale consists o} five factors, which basically reflect the stressful events of the college seniors, and the scale is also proved of satisfactory reliability and validity.
    (2) The mood states of college seniors take the following form of change: Negative moods predominate at the early stage, and they keep improving with the passage of time. However, vigor decreases all the time. Academic pressure remains high in March despite its decrement from November, while the pressure from finding a job is only found high in March.
    (3) Both daily hassles and academic pressure was proved the most important stressful factors in longitudinal study as well as cross-sectional study. However, pressure of finding a job only plays a key role in longitudinal study. Neither methods support the great effect of stressful events on vigor.
    (4) Chinese college seniors seldom use social support as stress buffer, and subjective social support have more positive effect on mood states than objective social support. Compared with male students, female ones are more anxious and less vigorous. Those who evaluate low on economy status suffer more from negative mood states.
    (5) Stressful events exert the biggest effect on the negative mood states of college seniors, and the effect is mainly direct; however, social support only exerts poor effect on negative mood states through personality. Vigor is mainly affected by support, and the direct effect plays the biggest role; however, stressful events only have little effect on yigor through personality. Economic appraisal and gender have significant effect on the negative mood states and positive mood states respectively, but the effects are poor.

学科领域心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21807
专题健康与遗传心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
迟松. 大学毕业生心境状况及其影响因素的研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2004.
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迟松-博士学位论文.pdf(9291KB)学位论文 开放获取CC BY-NC-SA请求全文
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