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电子商务交易中供方的风险认知研究
其他题名Study on Risk Perception of Suppliers in E-Commerce Transactions
焦璇
学位类型硕士
导师陈毅文
2005-04
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业应用心理学
关键词供方 电子商务 风险认知 C2C
摘要

     电子商务正在成为信息时代的重要经济活动方式,但是在电子商务交易的过程中,由于信息流、物流和资金流的不同步,形成了一个产生风险的虚实界面。过高的风险必然阻碍交易的顺利进行,所以探讨供方在电子商务交易过程中的风险认知是十分必要的。
本研究在文献分析的基础上,通过深度访谈、纸笔问卷和网上问卷调查等定性和定量研究相结合的方法,分别考察了企业供方和个人供方(特别是后者)在电子商务交易中的风险来源要素和风险认知特征,经营情况对风险认知的影响,以及风险应对行为与风险认知间的关系。
    结果表明,第一,在电子商务交易中,企业供方的风险来源由四个要素构成,分别为企业内部管理、物流配送、消费者购物习惯和支付系统,其中最担心的是来自支付系统的风险。而且这四个方面的风险均来自于信息流、物流和资金流不同步的虚实界面。
    第二,在电子商务交易中,个人供方担忧来自备货、信息呈现、沟通与配送和支付这四个环节的风险;从消费者、中介和内部经营这三个角度来控制风险;从中介与消费者、与消费者的沟通和内部经营三个方面来预测可能遇到的风险,这验证了供方风险认知的多维度性。其中从“忧虑性”和“可控性”入手分析,可以对个人供方对电子商务交易中的风险认知有很好的理解。
    第三,对来自信息呈现、一沟通与配送和支付环节的风险的忧虑程度,和对来自消费者和中介的风险的可控程度,都对总风险的认知有显著影响。以上这些对总风险有显著影响的风险来源要素均来源于信息流、物流和资金流不同步的虚实界面。
第四,个人供方的经营情况,经营开始时间、每月成交量、收入情况、交易方式,特别是所经营的产品类别对电子商务交易中的风险认知有一定的影响。而是否有自己的网站和物品新旧程度对风险认知基本没有影响。
    第五,个人供方有一种采取尽可能多的风险应对行为的倾向。如果个人供方采取了某些风险应对行为,如交易前最后确认、只和诚意买家交易,他们对风险的忧虑程度更低,对风险的可控程度更高。
    研究结果提示,要降低电子商务交易中的风险,就必须大力发展虚拟界面与实体界面中的交易中介,特别是身份和信用认证中介、物流配送中介、网上支付中介和交易平台中介,来完善我国电子商务的产业链条。
    本研究的创新之处在于扩展了风险认知的研究对象范围,首次在风险认知的研究框架下探索供方在电子商务交易中的风险来源和风险认知特征,特别是对于C2C型电子商务中个人供方的研究。

其他摘要

    E-commerce is becoming the important economic  activity manner in the information times. Nevertheless, because the information flow, logistics and capital flow can't synchronize, there is a cyber-reality interface where the risk comes into being, during the course of e-commerce transactions. Too much risk will definitely baffle the transactions. So it is necessary to explore the risk perception of the suppliers in the e-commerce transactions.
   The aim of this study is to explore the risk perception of enterprise suppliers and individual  suppliers (especially the  later) respectively during the e-commerce transaction, which include the risk source factors and the risk characteristics, the influence of the management  circumstances  to  the,  risk perception,  and the relationship of the coping risk behavior and the risk perception. Based on the literature analysis, it combined qualitative and quantitative research method, such as in-depth int.,rviews, paper-pencil and web questionnaires survey.
    Result showed that, first, enterprise suppliers worry about four risk source factors during the e-commerce transaction, including enterprise inside management, logistics and delivery, consumer purchase habit and payment system. Thereinto, they worried about payment system most. And these four aspects of risk all come from the cyber-reality interface in which the information flow, logistics and capital flow are not synchronized.
    Second, during the e-commerce transaction, the individual suppliers worry about the risk comes from four taches, that is stocking up, information presentation, communication and delivery and payment. They control the risk from three angles, that is consumer, agency and inside management. They forecast the risk from three aspects, that is agency and consumer, cornmu}nication with the consumer and inside management. So the mufti-dimension of the risk perception of the suppliers was validated. And to better understand the risk perception of the individual suppliers during the e-commerce transaction, we'd better start with the analyzation of anxiety and controllability.
    Third, the anxiety about the risk from information presentation, communication and delivery and . payment, and the controllability of the risk from consumer and agency all can significant influence the total perceived risk. And the risk source factors that can significant influence the general perceived risk all come from the cyber-reality interface in which the information flow, logistics and capital flow are not synchronized.
    Fourth, the management circumstances of individual suppliers: start time amount of bargain per month, income state, the manner of the transaction, especially the product categories, have the determinate influence to the risk perception during the e-commerce transaction. While, whether has ones website, and the degree of the products' newness basically have no influence to the risk perception.
    Fifth, individual suppliers tend to take as many as possible the coping risk behavior. If individual suppliers took some coping risk behavior, such as confirm before transaction, and only deal with sincerely consumers, their anxiety about the risk would be lower, and the controllability of the risk would be higher.
    The result suggested that to reduce the risk during the e-commerce transaction, the suppliers and the consumers have to depend on the transaction agency which in the cyber-reality interface, especially the identity and credit authentication agency, logistics and delivery agency, web payment agency and transaction website agency, and to perfect the e-commerce industry chain in our country.
    The innovation of this study is that it enlarges the field of object of risk perception study. It is the first study that explores all kinds of risk source factors and the characteristics of risk perception of the suppliers in the e-commerce transactions under the study frame of the risk perception. Especially it is the first study that studies the suppliers of C2C e-commerce transaction.

学科领域心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21811
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
焦璇. 电子商务交易中供方的风险认知研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2005.
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