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小学儿童学习时间分配决策水平的发展与促进
其他题名The development and improvement of children's decision一making on allocation of study time
刘希平
学位类型博士
导师方格
2004-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业发展与教育心理学
关键词儿童 学习时间分配 任务难度的预见 学习程度的判断 发展 促进
摘要

    学习时间分配是学习主体对自己在记忆过程中心理资源的一种控制和管理,是程序性元记忆的核心问题之一研究小学儿童学习时间分配决策水平的发展与促进,与“心理理论”的研究一起,成为当前探讨“儿童对主观世界的认识”研究的两大热点问题之一,对了解小学儿童程序性元记忆的发展、帮助小学儿童在学习中合理分配主观资源、最大限度地提高学习效率,具有实际意义;同时,为建构儿童学习时间分配决策水平发展的理论模型,提供数据支持。
    本研究考查了①小学儿童学习时间分配决策水平的发展过程;②制约小学儿童学习时间分配决策水平发展的外部条件;③预见性记忆监测对儿童学习时间分配决策水平的制约作用的发展;④小学儿童学习时间分配决策水平的促进。
    主要研究方法是实验室实验法。分别采用“自控步调”的学习和“自控步调与他控步调相结合”的学习范式,利用Dell计算机呈现学习材料并记录学习时间和提取正确率,以小学2, 4, 6年级的学生(平均年龄分别为7. 9岁、9. 9岁、11. 9岁)为研究主体,以反义词对、近义词对和人为组合的词对经被试评定作为难度不同的学习材料。研究发现:
    ①小学儿童学习时间分配决策水平随年龄增长而提高。
    具体表现是:第一,小学儿童学习时间分配决策表现随年龄增长有逐渐趋向于成人模式的倾向;第二,小学儿童的任务难度的预见等级与学习时间之间的G相关随年龄增长而提高。
    ②不同的任务条件(任务定向,提取方式,时限长短)对不同年级的小学儿童学习时间分配决策水平的发展有不同的影响。
    小学2年级儿童学习时间分配的决策受提取方式、时间限制的影响,但不受任务定向的影响;小学4年级儿童的学习时间分配决策受任务定向和时间限制的影响,但今受提取方式的影响;小学6年级儿童学习时间分配决策只受时间限制的影响,不受提取方式和任务定向的影响。说明制约刁、学不同年级儿童的学习时间分配决策的因素不同。
    ③提取方式制约儿童任务难度的预见等级与学习时间的G相关的发展,但并不影响学习程度的判断等级与学习时间之间的G相关的发展。
    具体表现为在不同的提取方式下,小学儿童任务难度的预见等级与儿童的学习时间分配之间的G相关有不同的发展趋势;但小学儿童学习程度的判断等级在自由回忆、线索回忆和再认三种提取方式下,与学习时间长短之间的G相关不存在年龄差异。
    ④小学4年级儿童学习时间分配决策水平可以通过训练获得一定程度的提高。
训练是利用自我测验技术和反馈实现的。但因为显著性水平不是很强,实验结果还有待于进尸步的实验检验。
    ⑤元记。忆缺乏假说适合解释儿童学习时间分配的决策水平的发展。
    因为第一,儿童的任务难度的预见和学习程度的判断等级与学习时间之间存在显著的相关;第二,通过对儿童的学习程度的判断水平的训练,可以在一定程度上间接提高小学4年级儿童的学习时间分配的决策水平。

其他摘要

  cation of study time is a kind of regulation and control to one's mental resources,It is one of the key issues of procedural metamemory. The current study is one of the two hot topics on "children's knowledge about mental world" (Another one is "theory of mind").  It could  help  us  know more the development of children's  procedural metamemory, also could help children know how to allocate their mental resources properly during they are learning, and then improve their performances in school at most. It also could provide data for building a theoretical model of children's allocation of study time.
    The current study explored the following issues: a) the procedure of development of children's  allocation  of study time;  b) external conditions that  influence the decision一making on allocation of study time; c) the development of G correlation between prospective monitoring and allocation of study time; d) the possibility of improving the level of decision一making on children's allocation of study time.
    The main method was experimentation. The programs in a Dell Computer executed all the procedures. The computer recorded all the time allocated and performances of Ss' retrieving. The Models for study were both "Self-paced and Experimenter-paced study" and "Self-paced study only". Most of the Ss were Grade 2, Grade 4, Grade 6 children (with average age respective, 7.9 years old,9.9 years old,and 11.9 years old). The difficulty of the learning items was controlled by different relation between Chinese pair-words, antonym pair-words as easy words, related pair-words as middle difficulty ones, and unrelated pair-words as the hard ones. The difficulty of the items was evaluated by Ss.
    Conclusions are as follow:
    a) The older the children are, the higher the level of decision-making on allocation of study time is.
    First, the performance of children's decision-making is more and more similar to adults', with their age growing up. Second,the G correlation between the degree of ease-of-learning judgment and the time allocated is getting higher with age going up.
   b) Task-oriented influences children's decision一making on allocation of study time So do with retrieving mean and time limitation. However it is different for different age's children.
Retrieving mean and time limitation influence Grade 2 children's decision一making on allocation of study time, while task-oriented does not. Task-oriented and time limitatiioninflience Grade 4 children, but does not retrieving mean. Time limitation only influences Grade 6 children, neither retrieving mean nor task-oriented.It is implicating that  there  are  different  factors,  which  influence  different  age's  children's decision一making on allocation of study time.
    c) Retrieving mean influences the development of G correlation between the degree of ease-of-learning judgment and the time allocated, not the G correlation between the degree of judgment-of-learning and the time allocated.
    There are different developmental trends of G correlation between ease-of-learning judgment and time allocated, under different retrieving means. However there are no between judgment of learning and time allocated.
    d) Training programs could improve Grade 4 children's level of decision一making on allocation of study time.
    The key steps are "self-testing" online, and "feedback". Both of them may improve the children's level of decision一making on allocation of study time. The result should be confirmed again, because the p is not reliable enough in current research.
    e) Metamemory deficiency hypothesis may be a proper way to explain children's immature decision-making on allocation of study time.
    One of the evidences is that there are reliable G correlation between children's ease-of-learning judgment and the time allocated. Another one is children's level of decision一making on study time allocation has been improved to some extent by training the ability of judgment of learning.

学科领域心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21815
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
刘希平. 小学儿童学习时间分配决策水平的发展与促进[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2004.
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