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领导反馈有效性的影响因素模型
其他题名The Effective Model of supervisor's feedback and its influnces
王永丽
学位类型博士
导师时勘
2004-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业应用心理学
关键词领导反馈 表扬 批评 针对小组 针对个人 文化价值观 自我调节系统
摘要

    缺乏有效的反馈是导致很多组织问题的前置因素之一,如何使员工得到有效的反馈,以提高组织绩效和员工满意度,是组织行为学研究中一个很有潜力的领域(Gilbert)。本研究采用模拟情境测验法、干预实验法、现场调查法等系列研究方法,先后对2500余名被试进行了实验以及调查研究,逐步探讨了领导反馈有效性的影响因素,重点考察了个人主义、集体主义文化价值观差异、自我调节系统对反馈效果的调节作用,研究结果表明:
    第一、单纯的表扬并不能很好地改善员工绩效、也不能导致员工积极的行为倾向,而批评则会引起员工冲突的行为倾向;进一步的研究发现,从反馈对象的角度来看,针对小组还是针对个人,对员工的行为和绩效的影响是不同的,针对小组的反馈能够显著地提高绩效,尤其是针对小组的表扬更能够提高员工的绩效。
    第二、有关领导反馈对员工非绩效变量(工作满意度、组织承诺)影响的研究结果表明,针对个人的表扬越多越能提高员工的工作满意度、组织承诺,针对个人批评则会显著地降低员工的工作满意度,而针对小组的批评能够显著提高员工的满意度和组织承诺。
    第三、文化价值观差异是影响反馈效果的重要的调节变量,具体表现为,集体主义倾向较强的员工得到针对小组的反馈,尤其是小组表扬,能够提高他们的行为积极性和工作绩效;个人主义倾向较强的员工,如果得到针对个人的反馈,尤其是对个人的表扬,能够激发其工作积极性、进而提高绩效。深入的研究发现,个人表扬针对垂直个人主义倾向较强者,可以提高其绩效,反之,针对水平个人主义倾向较强者,不管是表扬还是批评,只要是针对个人的反馈,会对其作业成绩起消极作用。
    第四、自我调节系统对反馈效果有一定的调节作用,研究发现,具有防御调节点的员工,得到针对个人的批评会提高其绩效,而针对提升调节点的员工,个人批评则会降低他们的绩效,表扬却并没有显著提高员工的绩效。

其他摘要

    The lack of effective feedback is one of antecedent factors leading to many organizational problems. The study of supervisor’s feedback is a promising area in Organizational Behavior research (Gilbert). In this research, We conducted a series of studies such as scenario study, intervention study and field study to discuss the effects of different attributes of feedback and the factors that influence the effects of feedback. About 2500 subjects were selected in this study. Two moderators individualism/collectivism cultural value and self-regulatory system were studied. Main results are listed as follows:
    Firstly, positive feedback did not improve employees' performance significantly and did not arise positive behavior intention. On the contrary, negative feedback may lead to conflict behavior intention. Furthermore, there were different effects between individual feedback and group feedback. Group feedback, especially the positive feedback to group, could improve performance.
    Secondly, the more positive individual feedback employees were given, the higher job satisfaction and organizational commitment they had. On the contrary, negative feedback to individuals could reduce their job satisfaction and organizational commitment. We also found that negative  feedback to group could  increase employees' job satisfaction and organizational commitment.
    Thirdly, the difference of cultural values on individualism/collectivism was a moderator of feedback effects. For employees with stronger collectivism orientation, group feedback, especially positive group feedback, enhanced their performance and their intention of positive behavior.Employees with stronger Individualism orientation preferred individual feedback, if they got individual  feedback, especially positive individual feedback, they had  better  performance. Individualism can be divided  into veutical  and  horizontal types. Employees of  vertical individualism improved their performance when they got more positive individual feedback, however, no matter positive or negative, individual feedback to horizontal individuals could all lead to negative effects.
    Fourthly, self-regulatory system also moderated the effects of feedback. For prevention focus employees, if they got more negative individual feedback, they had better performance. On the contrary, promotion focus employees worsened their performance, while no better performance were found for them positive feedback.

学科领域心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21949
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
王永丽. 领导反馈有效性的影响因素模型[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2004.
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