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3-8 岁儿童不公平厌恶的发展及其与共情的关系
其他题名The Development of 3- to 8-year-old Children’s Inequity Aversion and its relationship with empathy
邱小菊
学位类型博士
导师朱莉琪
2016-11
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业发展与教育心理学
关键词不公平厌恶 程序公平 努力和需求 共情
摘要

公平是个体道德发展的核心,也是维系社会合作、促进社会发展的重要机制之一。社会公平是大多数社会成员的期望,而当遭遇不公平待遇时,个体则会表现出不公平厌恶。公平和不公平厌恶是一个问题的两个方面。不公平厌恶意味着个体作为分配者要进行公平分配;作为分配的回应方,个体愿意放弃部分自我利益来保证分配的公平性。不公平厌恶行为有助于公平规范的建立和维持,对实现社会公平意义重大。但已有研究往往只关注儿童作为分配者或提议者的不公平厌恶,没有系统比较两者之间的差异。以往研究也更多关注儿童对分配结果的不公平厌恶,忽略了儿童的程序不公平厌恶。对他人的共情往往是推动个体产生亲社会行为的基础,但以往研究很少关注共情和不公平厌恶之间的关系。本研究将从三个方面系统探讨儿童对分配结果和分配程序的不公平厌恶的发展。研究一考察了儿童作为提议者,在资源直接分配中的平等偏好和程序分配中的公平偏好。研究二则考察了儿童作为回应者,是否拒绝他人的不公平提议,或者不公平程序产生的分配结果。研究三将考察儿童的共情能力与不公平厌恶的关系。162 名3 岁-8 岁儿童参与了这项研究。
研究一探讨了儿童作为提议者在分配过程中的程序公平和结果不公平厌恶,发现这两者的发展趋势不同。在结果分配中,即使分配影响到自己的利益,3-8岁儿童的优势分配策略是按需分配和平等分配,而且在分配中较少考虑双方努力程度的差别。当他人没有需求时,儿童的主要分配方式为平等分配,表现出对不利或有利结果的规避。他人的需求可以降低儿童的不平等厌恶,让儿童的分配更有利于对方,即使对3-4 岁儿童也是如此。儿童在分配时很少考虑双方的努力程度,但7-8 岁儿童在对方的努力程度能够满足其需求状态时,更能够满足其想要3 个的愿望。在程序分配过程中,儿童对有利程序(转盘)或不利程序的厌恶发展趋势不同:3-4 岁儿童就表现出对不利不公平程序的厌恶,更倾向于选择公平程序而不是不利不公平程序来决定资源的分配;然而当备选程序有利于自己时, 7-8 岁儿童才表现出一定的不公平程序厌恶。
研究二探讨了儿童作为分配的接受方,对结果不公平和程序不公平的回应行为。儿童对他人提出的公平或不公平分配结果(有利或不利于自己)的回应表明随着年龄的增长,儿童越来越能够放弃自己的资源来拒绝他人提出的不公平分配结果,不管其是否有利于自己。而且在7-8 岁时,儿童的不利不公平厌恶比有利不公平厌恶更强。3-4 岁儿童会接受他人的所有分配提案,不管其是否公平;5-6岁儿童开始拒绝对方提出的有利或不利不公平提案,但两者之间没有显著差异;7-8 岁儿童的有利和不利不公平厌恶继续增长,并表现出更强的不利不公平厌恶。此外,分配者对资源的意图会强化个体的不公平厌恶。当提议者为直接参与分配的第二方而不是相对中立的第三方时,也就是当资源分配直接影响到提议者的利益时,5-6 岁和7-8 岁儿童更倾向于拒绝不公平提议。
研究二还发现当作为程序分配中的回应者时,总体来说儿童倾向于接受所有程序产生的所有结果。不过当对方选择了不公平程序来分配资源时,7-8 岁儿童更能够拒绝这一过程所产生的结果,不管它是否有利于自己。总体来说,研究二说明程序不公平厌恶的发展总体来说晚于结果不公平厌恶的发展。
研究三探讨了幼儿的共情和不公平厌恶的关系。发现共情的不同成分与不公平厌恶行为的关系不同。情感共情与不公平厌恶没有关联。认知能力的提高可能和拒绝不公平分配呈正向关联,但也可能与接受不公平分配,最大化个人利益的倾向呈正向关联,其具体关系取决于认知共情的测量任务。对他人情绪的观点采择以及对失言者的意图理解和拒绝不公平的分配结果或程序呈正相关。其他认知共情测量,如心理理论、认知共情分量表分以及对失言知识和情绪的准确认知则与接受不公平提议和选择对自己更有利的分配程序呈正向关联。
综上,本研究表明不公平厌恶的不同类别具有不同的发展趋势,但都会随着年龄的提高而增强,并且会受到社会分配情境的强化。3-4 岁儿童就能在主动分配中保证结果的公平,并规避对自己不利的不公平程序。但作为回应方时,较大儿童才能够拒绝他人的不公平分配;而且这种拒绝更多是基于结果的,到7-8 岁时儿童才能更多基于程序的不公平性来拒绝某一分配。考虑他人的需求可以降低儿童的不平等厌恶,但双方努力程度的差异很少会影响儿童的分配。认知共情和儿童不公平厌恶的发展有一定关联。但共情是一个非常复杂的结构,它的不同成分以及测量方式会产生与不公平厌恶行为的不同关系强度和方向。本研究填补了国内不公平厌恶研究领域的空白,为了解儿童的公平行为发展,促进儿童的亲社会行为和社会化提供了理论依据。

其他摘要

Fairness is at the core of human morality, and the key to maintain social cooperation and promote social development. As a member of the society, people are looking forward to the realization of fairness; and when treated unfairly, they act with a sense of inequity aversion. Fairness and inequity aversion are two sides of one coin. Inequity aversion means the urge to allocate resources equally as a distributor, and the willingness to give up self-interest to move in the direction of a more equitable division as a responder. Inequity aversion is beneficial for the establishment and maintaining of the fairness norm, which is significant for the realization of social fairness. However, previous research mainly focus on children’s inequity aversion as a proposer, or a responder, with no systematic comparison between these two characters. Previous research has also paid much attention to children’s inequity aversion to unfair outcomes, neglecting their aversion to unfair distributive procedures. Empathy for others usually promotes one’s prosocial behavior. However, little has been known about its relationship with inequity aversion. The present research would systematically investigate children’s inequity aversion in distributive outcomes and procedures in three aspects. Study 1 investigated children’s preferences toward fair distributions or procedures as proposers. Study 2 investigated children’s rejection of unfair offers or outcomes coming from unfair procedures as responders. Study 3 tried to find the relationship between empathy and inequity aversion. One hundred and sixty-two 4-8 years old children participated in this study.
Study 1 investigated children’s aversion of keeping unfair outcomes or using biased procedures, as a proposer. The results revealed difference in the development of these two aversions. Even when one’s own material interest was involved, children aged 3 to 8 prefer to allocate resources equally or by need, with little consideration of the different effort paid. When the other was in no need, children mainly distributed resources equally between themselves, avoiding advantageous or disadvantageous allocations. Other’s need decreased children’s inequity aversion, making children’s, including the youngest 3-4-year-old’s, distribution more favorable to the other. Children seldom took the different effort paid into consideration. Seven-8-year-old children, on the other hand, were more likely to satisfy the other’s need for three fruit erasers when it had paid more effort than when it labored less. When choosing distributing procedures (wheels), children developed differently in their aversion to advantageous vs. disadvantageous procedures. Three to 4-year-old children have already shown their aversion to disadvantageous procedure, choosing the fair procedure rather than the unfair one to determine the distribution of resources. When the alternative was more advantageous to the self, however, 7-8-year-old children started to show some inequity aversion.
Study 2 explored as a receptor of the distribution, children’s response toward unequal distributions or biased procedures. Children’s response to other’s equal or unequal distribution (advantageous or disadvantageous toward oneself) shew that as that is, when a distribution was more associated with the proposer’s interest, it was more likely to be rejected by 5-6 and 7-8- year-old children. Study 2 explored as a receptor of the distribution, children’s response toward unequal distributions or biased procedures. Children’s response to other’s equal or unequal distribution (advantageous or disadvantageous toward oneself) shew that as age grew, children were more ready to give up their resources to reject unequal offers, whether they were advantageous or not. At the age of 7-8, disadvantageous aversion was much stronger than advantageous aversion. T-year-old children accepted any offer proposed, regardless of its fairness. Five-6-year-old children began to reject advantageous and disadvantageous unequal distributions, with no difference between these two rejections. Seven-8-year-old children’s AI and DI both increased, with stronger DI than AI. In addition, proposer’s intention toward the material resource context could enhance children’s inequity aversion. When an unequal distribution was proposed by a second-party whose self-interest involved instead of a neutral third-party, that is, when a distribution was more associated with the proposer’s interest, it was more likely to be rejected by 5-6 and 7-8- year-old children.
Study 2 also found that as a responder, children generally tended to accept the outcomes generated through fair or unfair procedures. When the unfair procedure was chosen, however, 7-8-year-olds were more likely to reject its outcomes, whether advantageous or not, than when a fair procedure chosen. Results from study 2 generally suggested that children’s aversion toward biased procedures was much later developed than their aversion to unequal outcomes.
Study 3 investigated the relationship between children’s empathy and inequity aversion and found different measurements of empathy were associated differently with inequity aversion. Affective empathy was not related with inequity aversion. Higher cognitive empathy could be positively related with the rejection of unfair offers, but also with the acceptance of unequal offers, and the inclination to maximize self-interest, depending on the specific measurement of cognitive empathy. Perspective taking of friends’ emotions and the gaffe’s intention was positively correlated with inequity aversion. Other scores reflecting cognitive empathy, such as theory of mind, questionnaire of cognitive empathy, and understanding the belief and emotion about the gaffe, on the other hand, were positively related with the acceptation of unfair offers and selecting self-beneficial distributive procedures.
In conclusion, the present research revealed that different aspects of inequity aversion follow distinct developmental path. But most of them will get stronger with age, and be enhanced by the sociability of distribution context. Children at 3-4 were able to initiate an equal distribution of resources, and avoid self-disadvantageous procedures. As a responder, however, older children can reject other’s unequal distributions, mainly based on outcomes. At the age of 7-8, children can reject distributions based on the inequity of procedures. Considerations of other’s need would decrease children’s inequity aversion, but the difference in effort has no impact on the distribution. The development of inequity aversion is associated with inequity aversion. But as the construct of empathy is rather complex, different component and measurement might shape different relationship with inequity aversion. The current research contributed to our knowledge of children’s development of fairness, and provided theoretical evidence for promoting children’s prosocial behavior and
socialization.

语种英语
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/25109
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
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GB/T 7714
邱小菊. 3-8 岁儿童不公平厌恶的发展及其与共情的关系[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2016.
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