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杨群1; 张清芳1,2


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Abstract The effects of word frequency (WF) and syllable frequency (SF) have been investigated systematically in the speech production domain, and the facilitation of the WF and SF effects have been observed in young Chinese adults. Old people experience more failures than young people in speech production, such as the tip-of-the-tongue (TOT), which means that speakers know target word's meaning but cannot retrieve its word form successfully. There are different types of hypotheses to explain the failure of word retrieval in speech production. The Insufficient Activation Hypothesis assumes that the activation of the target word is too weak to retrieve it. The Interference Theory assumes that the words related to the target words inhibit the process of speech production. The Transmission Deficit Hypothesis assumes that normal aging reduces the activation transmission between the meaning and the word form of target words, which results in more failures. The present study aims to investigate the developmental patterns and the cognitive mechanism of aging in speech production in young and old native Chinese speakers. 25 young (range: 19-30, male: 8, M = 22.6) and 22 old adults (range: 60-77, male: 15, M = 68.5) sharing the same level of education background participated in the experiment. Sixty target pictures with monosyllabic names were selected. A Chinese character's pronunciation (pinyin) corresponds to one syllable, and thus SF was calculated by accumulating the word frequencies of one syllable (not counting tone). For 60 monosyllabic words, half were high frequency (all ≥130/per million), and half were low frequency (≤47/per million). Among high and low frequency words, half had high SF (≥2558/per million), and half had low SF (≤1479/per million). In addition, distractor words that were phonologically related or unrelated were
chosen for each target picture name in the picture-word interference task. During the experiment, participants were asked to name pictures as quickly and accurately as possible while ignoring distractor words. The experiment was performed using E-Prime Professional Software on a 21 inch CRT computer screen with a refresh rate of 100HZ. Naming latencies were measured from target onset using a voice-key, connected to the computer via a PST Serial Response Box. Errors were judged and marked by an experimenter during the experiment. We performed repeated measures ANOVAs, one with participants as a random effect (F 1) and one with items (F 2) as a random effect on response latencies and error rates. For subject analysis, WF, SF and phonological relatedness were within-participants variables, and age was betweenparticipants variable. For item analysis, age and phonological relatedness were within-item variables, and WF and SF were between-items variables. Results indicate that the old took longer time to name a picture than the young. The facilitation effects of WF and SF were observed in both young and old adults, and both WF and SF facilitation effect sizes were larger in the old than in the young. Critically, we found the interaction pattern of WF and SF in the old but independent pattern in the young. Meanwhile, the young produced a larger phonological facilitation effect than the old, reflecting that the young could benefit more than the old in phonologically related condition, and the old may be interfered by the phonologically related distractors. Our findings provide evidence for the Insuffi cient Activation Hypothesis or Transmission Deficit Hypothesis of aging in speech production.

Keyword口语产生 词频效应 音节频率效应 语音促进效应 认知年老化
Source Publication心理科学
Indexed ByCSCD
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Cited Times:5[CSCD]   [CSCD Record]
Document Type期刊论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
杨群,张清芳. 口语产生中词频效应、音节频率效应和语音促进效应的认知年老化[J]. 心理科学,2015,38(6):1303-1310.
APA 杨群,&张清芳.(2015).口语产生中词频效应、音节频率效应和语音促进效应的认知年老化.心理科学,38(6),1303-1310.
MLA 杨群,et al."口语产生中词频效应、音节频率效应和语音促进效应的认知年老化".心理科学 38.6(2015):1303-1310.
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