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自我控制双维度模型:启动与抑制的分离效应
其他题名Self-control Dual-dimension Model: The Separation Effect of Initiation and Inhibition
张静怡
学位类型硕士
导师高文斌
2018-04
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
关键词自我控制 自我损耗 启动 抑制
摘要

自我控制的研究一直是心理学研究的重要课题。现在已有的经典理论往往将自我控制看作一般性的能力,或更注重它抑制控制的一面。然而已有一些研究结果提示我们,自我控制可能并不是一个一般性的能力,而是分为抑制和启动两种不同的能力,且这两种能力相互独立,对个体的行为有不同的影响。结合以往研究结果及相关理论,本研究从特质和情境两方面入手,探索自我控制中启动和抑制两个方面的能力的联系和区别,构建自我控制启动/抑制双维度理论。
本研究中,研究一采用量表调查的手段,验证自我控制中启动和抑制的双维度现象;研究二采用经验取样,探索启动和抑制两种不同维度的自我控制能力对个体在为期28天的好习惯养成(启动)和坏习惯戒除(抑制)两种自我控制行为上的不同影响,以此考察启动与抑制两个维度在特质层面上的差异;研究三采用连续任务范式,探索在实验室情境中,启动和控制两种类型的自我控制任务对个体自我损耗作用的影响,以此考察启动和抑制两个维度在情境层面上的差异。
研究结果如下:
1.本研究通过量表测量的手段初步证明,启动和抑制是自我控制中两个相对独立的成分,存在分离效应。
2.在经验取样任务中,虽然被试在新习惯养成(启动性任务)和旧习惯戒除(抑制性任务)两项任务中的完成情况不存在显著性差异,但在前者中,被试感到自己付出了更多的意志努力并体验到了更多的困难感。
3.在经验取样任务中,在完成情况方面,无论对于何种自我控制行为任务,抑制性自我控制均起到了显著(或边缘显著)的正向预测作用,而启动性自我控制则没有显著预测作用。进一步分析结果表明,对于抑制性自我控制能力强的个体来说,启动性自我控制能力的作用不大,而对于抑制性自我控制能力差的个体来说,启动性自我控制能力强能帮助个体进行自我控制任务。在意志努力方面,自我控制量表得分对自我控制行为任务均没有预测作用。在难度评价方面,抑制性自我控制在启动性自我控制任务中起到了显著的负向预测作用,而启动性自我控制在两种任务中均没有显著预测作用。
4.在实验室情境下,虽然在响应任务的测量结果上并未取得阳性结果,但相比于抑制损耗组的被试,启动损耗组的被试会感到更多的压力感和更少的愉快感。未来可能需要改进实验进行进一步探索。

其他摘要

  The study of self-control has always been an important subject in the study of Psychology. The existing classical theories often regard self-control as a kind of general ability, or emphasize its inhibition side. However, there have been some research results suggesting that, rather than a kind of general ability,self-control may be divided into two different abilities, initiation and inhibition, which are independent to each other and played different role in the performance of the individual. Combined with previous research results and related theories, this study explore the connections and differences between the initiation and inhibition in self-control on trait-side and state-side, in order to build the self-control dual-dimension model.
  Firstly, the study use questionnaire to verify the dual-dimension phenomenon of initiation and inhibition in self-control. Secondly, the study use experience sampling method to explore the different roles that initiation and inhibition play on two different self-control tasks on the following 28 days, a initiation task of good habit forming and a inhibition task of bad habit abstinence, in order to investigate the differences between the initiation and inhibition in self-control on trait-side. Thirdly, the study use sequential-task paradigm to explore the different impact that initiation and inhibition make on ego-depletion, in order to investigate the differences between the initiation and inhibition in self-control on state-side.
  Results are as following:
  1. Research results preliminary proved the dual-dimension phenomenon of initiation and inhibition in self-control using questionnaire.
  2. In experience sampling task, there was no significant difference on performance between good habit forming (initiation task) and bad habit abstinence (inhibition task). However, when forming a new good habit, people paid more willpower and felt more difficult.
  3. In experience sampling task, the inhibition ability had a significantly (or marginal significantly) positive prediction on performance, either in initiation task or in inhibition task, while the initiation ability had no significantly prediction on performance in two tasks. Further analysis results show that, for people who have good inhibition ability, the initiation ability was not that important while for people who have bad inhibition ability, the initiation ability could help people conduct self-control task. In addition, self-control including initiation ability and inhibition ability, had no significantly prediction on mental effort in two tasks. The inhibition ability had significantly negative prediction on difficulty evaluation in initiation task while the initiation ability had no significantly prediction on difficulty evaluation in two tasks.
  4. In laboratory situation, although there was no positive result in response task, after depleting initiation self-control resource, people felt more pressure and less pleasure. Further exploration may be needed in the future.

语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/25682
专题健康与遗传心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
张静怡. 自我控制双维度模型:启动与抑制的分离效应[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2018.
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