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中文阅读中知觉广度不对称的认知机制研究
Alternative TitleThe cognitive mechanism of the asymmetry of the perceptual span in Chinese reading
刘维琳
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor李兴珊
2018-06
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline应用心理
Keyword阅读 眼动跟踪 知觉广度
Abstract

    阅读是人类获取信息的重要途径,通过阅读我们可以学习知识和了解外部世界。在阅读中,知觉广度的大小是有限的,它的大小取决于读者在一次注视中能够获取的文本信息的数量。对不同书写方向的语言在阅读中的知觉广度的研究发现,读者在阅读自左向右书写的语言文字(如英文和中文)时,知觉广度的右侧部分更大;而当读者阅读自右向左书写的语言时,读者知觉广度的左侧部分更大。对于知觉广度不对称的成因,研究者提出了阅读方向引起的注视点左右两侧注意资源分布的不对称假设。但是目前知觉广度不对称的认知机制还并不明确。
    该论文包含三个研究,研究一通过探究中文阅读中知觉广度的左右不对称和半视野呈现下中文双字词词汇判断任务中的右视野优势效应之间是否存在相同的认知机制,探讨知觉广度不对称的成因;研究二则进一步验证中文阅读中知觉广度不对称是由阅读方向引起的注意资源分布的不对称导致的假设,研究二包含两个实验,我们使用了边界范式的变式和刺激探测任务来对读者阅读过程中的注意分布进行测量,发现对探测刺激的反应时在知觉广度内外存在显著差异,知觉广度范围内会有较多的注意资源分布。
    在研究三中,探讨了中文读者对左侧知觉广度外的信息是否能够加工以及其加工的范围。本研究采用边界范式的变式,当读者眼睛越过边界的同时操纵边界左侧不同距离之外的字变为视觉相似字。结果发现,当变化发生在边界左侧三个字之外的条件下时,读者依旧会在越过边界后对左侧变化区域产生更多的回视,说明在中文阅读中读者至少可以对注视点左侧三个字的信息进行加工,结果也说明读者可以对左侧知觉广度外的信息进行加工,知觉广度不对称也可能是由于左侧知觉广度外的信息在上一个注视点己经加工完成,对当前注视点的信息加工不再产生贡献,因而测得的左侧知觉广度相对较小。
    根据这些研究的实验结果,我们推断知觉广度的不对称是受到阅读方向引起的注意分布的不对称的影响。同时,知觉广度的不对称也可能是左侧知觉广度外的信息己经被加工完成,对当前注视点的信息加工不再产生贡献,所以左侧知觉广度相对较小。知觉广度的不对称可能受这两种因素共同的影响。

Other Abstract

    Reading is an important way to obtain new information, to learn knowledge and to understand the world. Perceptual span in defined as the amount of text information that readers can reading is efficiently perceive during a single fixation. Previous studies showed that when the readers read English text, the asymmetry of the perceptual span was rightward; while when they read Hebrew, a language written from right to left, the perceptual span was leftward asymmetry. Therefore, researchers posited the hypothesis that the asymmetrical perceptual span may be caused by attention allocation related to reading direction. However, the mechanism of the asymmetry of the perceptual span is not clear now.
    The main purpose of this thesis was to examine the cognitive mechanism of the perceptual span in Chinese reading. There were three studies in my thesis. In the first study, we investigated whether there was common mechanism between the rightward perceptual span and the right visual field advantage for the recognition of a two-character word in Chinese. In the second study, we directly tested the hypothesis of attentional asymmetry by using a combination of a boundary paradigm and a probe detection task to detect attention allocation during Chinese reading.
The results showed that attention was allocated more within the area of perceptual span compared with the areas beyond it, and attention allocation is rightward asymmetrical during Chinese reading.
    In the third study, we explored whether Chinese readers could obtain text information beyond the leftward perceptual span and how far it was. We adopted a gaze-contingent post-view boundary paradigm. When the readers' eyes crossed the boundary, the characters from the beginning of the sentence to several distances from the left of boundary changed into visually similar characters and the change was last for only a single fixation.
The findings demonstrated that there were more regressions to the left of boundary immediately after crossing the boundary even in n-3 condition, illustrating that Chinese readers could obtain information from three characters to the left at least. The results supported the hypothesis that readers could obtain information beyond the leftward perceptual span. However, this part of text had already been read and did not affect the processing of the current fixation. As a result, the perceptual span showed asymmetrical.
    Although the perceptual span is rightward as a result of the asymmetry of attention allocation, the characters beyond the leftward perceptual span could be recognized, the asymmetrical perceptual span may be the results that the left characters to the left of the perceptual span had been processed during the last fixation, and had no influence on the current processing, so the leftward perceptual span was smaller.

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/26102
Collection认知与发展心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
刘维琳. 中文阅读中知觉广度不对称的认知机制研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2018.
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