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工作场所自我损耗对安全绩效的影响
其他题名The Effect of Ego一depletion on Safety Performance in the Workplace
袁潇
学位类型博士
导师李永娟 ; 胥遥山
2018-06
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业应用心理学
关键词自我控制资源 自我损耗 自我控制工作要求 安全绩效 自安全示范性规范
摘要

    员工的安全行为是保障工作场所安全与健康的关键因素,因此,探索员工安全行为的影响因素,对企业预防工伤事故、减少经济损失具有重要意义。安全行为会受到个体自我控制能力和自我控制资源分配的影响,而在安全相关企业中,员工需要应对多种工作目标,安全通常被视为次要的目标。因此,当首要工作任务向员工提出较高的自我控制要求时,个体会优先将有限的自我控制资源分配给首要工作任务,导致自我控制资源的大量消耗,引发自我损耗,进而损害随后工作中的安全行为。
    本研究借鉴自我控制力量模型,通过三个子研究分别探讨工作场所中自我控制工作要求通过自我损耗对安全行为的即时性效应和持续性效应,以及从团队层面探讨团队自我控制要求通过团队损耗对团队安全行为和安全结果的影响,并结合自我控制力量模型和双过程理论,探讨自我控制特质和安全示范性规范对自我损耗的即时性和持续性效应的缓解作用。
    具体来讲,研究一采用经验取样法的日记研究,探索自我控制工作要求通过自我损耗对安全行为的即时性影响,以及个体自我控制特质和安全示范性规范对即时性损耗效应的调节作用。结果发现:自我控制要求会通过即时性的自我损耗减少员工的安全遵守;个体层面的自我控制特质会缓解自我控制要求对自我损耗的即时性影响;个体感知到的安全示范性规范会缓解即时性自我损耗对安全遵守的负面作用。
    研究二采用纵向追踪研究,探索自我控制工作要求通过自我损耗对安全行为的持续性影响,以及自我控制特质和安全示范性规范对持续性损耗效应的调节作用。结果发现:持续经历的自我控制工作要求会通过持续性自我损耗减少安全遵守和安全参与;自我控制特质可以缓解自我控制工作要求对自我控制资源的持续性损耗,安全示范性规范可以缓解持续性自我损耗对安全遵守和参与的负面影响;同时,安全遵守也会加剧自我损耗,而适当的安全参与则会减缓个体自我损耗。
研究三以团队为单位,探索团队自我控制工作要求通过团队损耗对团队安全绩效的影响,以及团队安全示范性规范水平及其强度对团队损耗效应的调节作用。结果发现:团队自我控制工作要求通过团队损耗水平减少团队安全遵守和参与行为,进而影响安全结果;团队损耗对团队安全遵守和参与的影响会受到安全示范性规范水平和安全示范性规范强度联合作用的影响:在高规范强度高规范水平条件下,团队损耗对团队安全绩效的影响最小;在高规范强度低规范水平条件下,团队损耗对团队安全绩效的影响最大。
    总体而言,本研究将自我控制力量模型引入组织安全领域,分别从日水平、个体水平和团队水平验证了自我损耗对安全绩效的影响,从资源损耗的视角给安全绩效的成因提供一个新的理论解释;同时,结合自我控制力量模型和双过程模型,探讨自我控制特质和安全示范性规范对自我损耗效应的缓解作用,为安全管理者在人员选拔,安全培训和团队干预等方面提供理论基础,从而改善工作场所安全。

其他摘要

   Safety behavior of employees is a key factor in ensuring workplace health and safety. Hence, it's important to explore factors that affect employees' safety behavior, which would be beneficial to prevent accidents and injuries and reduce economic loss. Safety behavior is influenced by self-control capacity of individual and the allocation of self-control resources. In safety-related industries, employees need to cope with multiple work goals, and safety is usually regarded as a secondary task. Therefore, the limited self-control resources would be allocated to the primary task first, resulting in inadequate self-control resources in safety-related tasks and causing ego-depletion, which in turn impair the safety performance.
    Drawing on  the limited  strength model of  self-control,  we  adopted  three sub一studies to explore the short-lived and long-term effect of self-control demand on safety performance through ego-depletion, and the effect of team self-control demand on team safety performance and safety outcome through team resource depletion at the team level, respectively. By integrating the strength model of self-control and dual-process theory together, the moderating effects of trait self-control and safety descriptive  norm  on  the  short-lived  and  long-term  ego-depletion  effect  were examined.
    Specifically, study 1 was a diary study using experience sampling method to explore the short-lived effects of self-control demand on safety behavior through ego-depletion, and the moderating effect of trait self-control and safety descriptive norm on the ego-depletion effect. Results showed that self-control demand reduced safety compliance through short-lived ego-depletion; trait self-control buffered the effect of the self-control demand on short-lived ego-depletion, and safety descriptive norm buffered the effect of short-lived ego-depletion on safety compliance.
    Study 2 was a longitudinal study to explore the long-term effects of self-control demand on safety behavior through ego-depletion, and the moderating effect of trait self-control and safety descriptive norm on the long-term effect. Results showed that sustained self-control demand reduced safety compliance and safety participation through  long-term  ego-depletion; self-control demand on sustained trait  self-control  buffered  the  effect  of  the resource depletion, and safety descriptive norm buffered the effect of long-term ego-depletion on safety compliance and safety participation; meanwhile, safety compliance would result in ego-depletion, however, moderated safety participation would reduce ego-depletion.
    Study 3 considered team as a unit to explore the effect of self-control demand on team safety behavior through deletion at the team level, and the moderating effect of team safety descriptive norm level and team safety descriptive norm strength on the team depletion effect. Results showed that team-level self-control demand reduced team safety compliance and team safety participation through team depletion, thereby increased safety outcome; the effect of team depletion on team safety compliance and team safety participation was influenced by the joint effect of team safety descriptive norm level and team safety descriptive norm strength: the weakest negative effect occurred under the levels of high norm strength and high norm levels, while the strongest negative effect occurred under the levels of high norm strength and low norm levels……

语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/26153
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
袁潇. 工作场所自我损耗对安全绩效的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2018.
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