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工作记忆视颇游戏训练对老年人认知功能的影响及脑机制研究
其他题名The influences and the brain mechanisms of working memory video game training on the cognitive function of older adults
王平
学位类型硕士
导师李会杰
2018-06
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业应用心理学
关键词视频游戏训练 工作记忆 老年人 认知功能 大脑结构
摘要

    随着人口老龄化程度的增加,老年人认知能力随龄下降问题引起了越来越多的关注,如何维持和改善老年人的认知功能成为重要的研究课题。己有研究表明,视频游戏训练对老年人的注意力、视空间加工能力、记忆力等认知功能具有显著的提升作用。本研究旨在通过自行设计的基于工作记忆的视频游戏,深入探究视频游戏训练对老年人认知功能的提升作用及神经机制。
    本研究共招募了70名符合纳入标准的老年人,并随机分配到实验组和控制组,其中实验组3 _5人,控制组3 _5人。所有被试均接受2次/周、1小时/次、为期6周的视频游戏训练。干预游戏为自行设计编制的游戏,其中实验组游戏是根据N-back范式改编而成,包含从0-back到3-back的任务;控制组游戏是根据0-back任务改编而成。干预前后分别对被试进行认知能力测试、情绪及日常生活能力测试以及结构磁共振成像扫描。结果显示:1)工作记忆视频游戏训练能够改善老年人的工作记忆能力;2)可以提升老年人加工速度、执行功能、视空间能力以及记忆力;3>对于大脑结构而言,相比于控制组,训练之后实验组被试左侧中央前回、左侧中央旁小叶、右侧中央前回、右侧颗下回以及海马旁回等脑区的灰质体积显著增加,这可能是工作记忆视频游戏训练改善老年人认知功能背后的神经机制。
    通过本研究可以发现,基于工作记忆的视频游戏训练不仅可以改善工作记忆;同时也能够改善大脑结构,并对其他认知功能产生积极的影响。本研究表明工作记忆视频游戏训练可以作为改善和提升老年人认知水平的有效干预手段。

其他摘要

    With the increase of aging population, cognitive decline of older adults has obtained more and more attention. How to maintain and improve the cognitive function of the older adults has become an important research topic. Previous studies suggested that video game training had a significant role in promoting the cognitive abilities of older adults, including attention, visuospatial processing and memory. With the self-designed video games, the present study aims to further explore the improvement of video game training on the cognitive function of older adults, as well as the relevant neural mechanisms behind the transfer effect.
The present study recruited 70 older participants and assigned randomly into training group (included 35 participants) and active control group (included 35 participants). All participants completed 12 1-hour training sessions in the laboratory over a period of 6 weeks. The training video game for training group was designed according to N-back paradigm, including tasks from 0-back to aback; while the training game for active control group was designed according to 0-back task. Before and after the training, cognitive tests, self-ratings of emotion and activities of daily life as well as structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were conducted. The results showed that the working memory video game training  1)improved the working memory capacity of older adults; 2) enhanced processing speed, executive function, visuospatial ability as well as memory of older adults; 3) compared to the control group, grey matter volume in the left precentral gyrus, left paracentral lobule, right precentral gyrus, right inferior temporal gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus increased in the experimental group after video game training.
    The present study showed that working memory video game training could improve th produce positive effects on other cognitive functions. These results suggest thate working memory capacity, ameliorate the brain structure, as well as working memory video game training could be an effective tool to improve cognitive abilities in older adults.

语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/26162
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
王平. 工作记忆视颇游戏训练对老年人认知功能的影响及脑机制研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2018.
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