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前额叶在老年阶段的可塑性及相关机制
Alternative TitlePlasticity of the prefrontal cortex in old age and underlying mechanisms
王晨茜; 陈天勇; 韩布新
First Author王晨茜
2018
Source Publication心理科学进展
Correspondent Emailchenty@psych.ac.cn
ISSN1671-3710
Volume26Issue:11Pages:2003–2012
Abstract

大量研究表明,前额叶的结构和功能更容易受年老化影响;然而,近年来的研究发现,前额叶的结构和功能在老年阶段具有一定的可塑性。对老年人进行认知训练,能够延缓前额叶皮层厚度的萎缩,提高白质完整性,改善神经网络的功能连接和分化,并可能通过调节多巴胺系统的活动改变前额叶皮质和皮质下结构的功能激活模式。有氧锻炼能够改善心脑血管功能,保护和促进神经元的存活和生长,引起前额叶灰质、白质体积的增加及功能激活的变化。认知训练与有氧锻炼等相结合的整合性训练不仅引起前额叶及相关认知功能的改变,而且具有更好的生态学效度,使老年人日常认知能力和生活质量得到提高。未来研究应采用多种技术手段,从多个层面理解老年阶段前额叶的可塑性及相关机制;加强对与前额叶关系密切的多种认知功能可塑性神经机制的研究;并重视与整合性训练有关的前额叶可塑性。

Other Abstract

Previous studies have shown that structure and function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are particularly vulnerable to aging. On the other hand, recent studies have also indicated that the structural and functional plasticity of PFC is preserved in old age. For older adults, cognitive training attenuates reduction of cortical thickness in PFC, increases white matter integrity, improves intra- and inter-network functional connectivity, and also changes functional activation through modulation of dopamine activity in PFC and subcortical structures. Aerobic exercise improves cardiovascular fitness, preserves neuronal integrity and promotes neurogenesis, which would then lead to increased volumes in prefrontal gray and white matter, and altered functional activation patterns. Multimodal intervention, which combines cognitive training and physical exercise, has demonstrated better ecological validity, enhancing everyday cognition and life quality of older adults. We suggest that future studies should adopt various techniques, in order to better understand the prefrontal neuroplasticity in old age and its related mechanisms; separately analyze the various PFC related cognitive abilities; and lay stress on the more ecological multimodal intervention.

Keyword前额叶 执行功能 老年 神经可塑性
Indexed ByCSCD
Language中文
CSCD IDCSCD:6369056
Citation statistics
Cited Times:1[CSCD]   [CSCD Record]
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/27012
Collection健康与遗传心理学研究室
Affiliation1.中国科学院心理健康重点实验室(中国科学院心理研究所)
2.中国科学院大学心理学系
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王晨茜,陈天勇,韩布新. 前额叶在老年阶段的可塑性及相关机制[J]. 心理科学进展,2018,26(11):2003–2012.
APA 王晨茜,陈天勇,&韩布新.(2018).前额叶在老年阶段的可塑性及相关机制.心理科学进展,26(11),2003–2012.
MLA 王晨茜,et al."前额叶在老年阶段的可塑性及相关机制".心理科学进展 26.11(2018):2003–2012.
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