Institutional Repository of Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, CAS
|Alternative Title||Musical Training Enhances the Processing of Temporal Fine Structure of Speech to Improve Speech-in-Noise Perception: Evidence from Behaviors and Electroencephalography|
Abstract：Many studies have found a musician advantage in identifying speech in noise (SIN), which opens a new avenue for studying the “cocktail-party problem”. Such an advantage might be achieved e by both top-down and bottom-up mechanisms: musical training could enhance higher-level cognitive functions (e.g., auditory attention or auditory working memory) and the cross-modal integration ability, or strengthen the processing of speech itself to improve speech in noise perception. While many research have focused on the higher-order functions in musicians, few studies have investigated how musical training influences the way that different acoustic components of speech been processed to improve the SIN performance. In those studies, the frequency-following response (FFR), an evoked response indexing how robust encoding of the periodicity of sound in the brainstem, had been used as an essential research method. A speech waveform could be decomposed into a slowly varying envelope (ENV) representing the fluctuation of energy and a rapidly varying temporal fine structure (TFS) containing the frequency and phase information. At present, it is generally believed that the envelope is most important for speech recognition, while the fine structure plays a key role in SIN although it is regarded as a redundant component in speech recognition in quiet environment. The current study investigated whether musical training enhances the processing of the envelope or fine structure of speech in adverse listening environment. In the psychophysical experiment，cognitively matched musicians and non-musicians were asked to repeat sentences that either the TFS or ENV has been removed and presented at different signal-noise-rate (SNR). Compared with non-musicians, musicians had significantly higher recognition of sentences preserving the TFS in mild noise (SNR = 5dB), and had no difference in repeating sentences without the TFS. Furthermore, electroencephalography from brainstem and cortex were recorded simultaneously when subjects listening to speech removed either the ENV or TFS, and analyzed by empirical mode decomposition and mutual information analysis, respectively. Results showed that, under quiet or weak noise conditions, compared to non-musicians, musicians were better at faithful representation of TFS in brainstem and reconstructing and synchronizing the speech envelope in auditory cortices from TFS-preserved speech, which was positively correlated with the better SIN performance. These findings suggest that, musical training may enhance the processing of the temporal fine structure of speech which allows strong recovery of, and neural synchronization with the speech envelope, which contributes to improved speech recognition in noisy environment. The current study provides a deeper understanding of the mechanisms on how musical training benefits speech processing.
|Keyword||音乐训练 噪声中言语识别 言语精细结构 言语包络|
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