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大学生体像态度及体像知觉特点的研究
其他题名A study on body Image attitude and the characteristics of body Image perception in College students
梁瑞
学位类型硕士
导师王葵
2018-06
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点中国科学院心理研究所
学位名称理学硕士
学位专业基础心理学
关键词体像 负性情绪 身体大小估计 吸引力估计 Bmi
摘要

体像(body image)我们关于自己身体的尺寸、形状和外形内化了的图片,这个图片不一定反映了我们的真实体型,是主观知觉的产物。广义的体像包含身高、体重、外貌等,狭义的体像研究多关注体重和体型。体像态度包括满意和不满意两种。对体重的不满意可能有两个方向:求瘦或者求胖。求瘦倾向与神经性厌/贪食症的核心症状密切相关,对个体有严重的影响。当个体现实体像和理想体像之间的不一致时就说明个体有体像不满(body image dissatisfaction)。关于体像的研究大多是在西方文化中进行的,大量研究表明体像不满意常和低自尊和高水平的负性情绪体验联系在一起。

体像问题最早从西方社会中观察到,因此人们推测东方文化可能对体像有保护作用。然而有限的研究表明东方文化中的个体可能也存在体像不满意,甚至有可能比西方文化个体的体像不满意还要严重。体像问题常见于处于青少年期和成年早期的个体。目前,我国对成年早期体像问题的研究还比较缺乏,因此研究一考察我国大学生的体像态度。其中第一个核心问题是大学生的体像态度。第二个核心问题是体像不满意和负性情绪、主观幸福感、自尊以及极端体重控制行为之间是否存在关联。为此,我们调查了445名大学生。他们的体像不满意情况使用图形匹配法来测量;负性情绪使用抑郁、焦虑和压力量表测量。此外,还使用自编量表测量了被试的极端体重控制行为。

求瘦是神经性厌食症的核心特点,个体的求瘦倾向是预测个体是否会患神经性厌食症的有效指标之一。患者中的研究表明那些极端求瘦的个体对自己和他人身体信息存在歪曲的加工。然而,尚不明确普通人群中的求瘦倾向是否也有类似的影响。为此,本论文的第二项研究考察普通人群中求瘦倾向如何影响个体对他人身体信息的知觉,包括个体对他人身体大小的估计和吸引力的评价。第一个核心问题是个体对他人吸引力的评价是否受到感知到的他人体重的影响;第二个核心问题是体重和吸引力之间的关系是否会受到个体自身的求瘦倾向的影响。我们招募100名大学生被试(男女各半),并给被试一一呈现126张他人的全身照(男女各半)。被试的任务是对这些图片人物的身高、体重和吸引力进行评价同时用问卷测量被试的求瘦倾向。

研究一发现 87% 的大学 生对自己的体像不满意,且大部分被试身高 生对自己的体像不满意,且大部分被试身高 和体重均不满意。女性男大学生 对身体形 象不满意的比例和程度没有差异, 象不满意的比例和程度没有差异, 象不满意的比例和程度没有差异, 象不满意的比例和程度没有差异, 象不满意的比例和程度没有差异, 象不满意的比例和程度没有差异, 象不满意的比例和程度没有差异, 象不满意的比例和程度没有差异, 象不满意的比例和程度没有差异, 象不满意的比例和程度没有差异, 象不满意的比例和程度没有差异, 象不满意的比例和程度没有差异, 象不满意的比例和程度没有差异, 性别差异出现在体型偏向上 —— 大多数女性希望身材苗条,而男中求瘦倾向不 大多数女性希望身材苗条,而男中求瘦倾向不 明显。此外,只有在女性中身体不满意与自尊、生活度呈负相关消极 明显。此外,只有在女性中身体不满意与自尊、生活度呈负相关消极 明显。此外,只有在女性中身体不满意与自尊、生活度呈负相关消极 明显。此外,只有在女性中身体不满意与自尊、生活度呈负相关消极 明显。此外,只有在女性中身体不满意与自尊、生活度呈负相关消极 明显。此外,只有在女性中身体不满意与自尊、生活度呈负相关消极 明显。此外,只有在女性中身体不满意与自尊、生活度呈负相关消极 情绪呈正相关。因此,虽然体像不满意的比例没有显著差异但是却 情绪呈正相关。因此,虽然体像不满意的比例没有显著差异但是却 情绪呈正相关。因此,虽然体像不满意的比例没有显著差异但是却 情绪呈正相关。因此,虽然体像不满意的比例没有显著差异但是却 给女性带来更多的困扰,这种可能和中严重求瘦倾向有关。无论在 给女性带来更多的困扰,这种可能和中严重求瘦倾向有关。无论在 给女性带来更多的困扰,这种可能和中严重求瘦倾向有关。无论在 男性和女中,求瘦倾向与极端体重控制行为存在显著相关。值得注意的是多数 男性和女中,求瘦倾向与极端体重控制行为存在显著相关。值得注意的是多数 男性和女中,求瘦倾向与极端体重控制行为存在显著相关。值得注意的是多数 女性的理想体重低于健康水平,并且型均值比男认为最有吸引 女性的理想体重低于健康水平,并且型均值比男认为最有吸引 力的异性体型均值小。两中关于理想差也许可以部分解释 力的异性体型均值小。两中关于理想差也许可以部分解释 为什么神 经性厌食症患者中大多是女。

研究二的发现有如下几点。其一、存在求瘦倾向的个体倾向于高估同性别他人的体重;其二、求瘦组女性被试对他人吸引力的评价低于不求瘦组。这两点表明存在求瘦倾向的个体在知觉他人身体信息时会存在类似于神经性厌食症患者的特点。其三、对他人吸引力的评价和体重的估计存在负相关。这个发现与“瘦即是美”的观点的流行是一致的。其四、当评价对象为女性时,体重和吸引力之间的关系比当评价对象为男性时更密切,说明体重增加对女性吸引力的损害更严重。人们倾向于认为BMI处于平均水平女性比男性更有吸引力。但是,随着BMI值的增加,这种女性优势会消失——当被评价者的BMI高于同性别BMI均值3.31个单位时,对女性吸引力评分会低于男性。其五、通过多层线性模型分析数据,我们发现在评价他人吸引力时,被试本身的求瘦倾向会加重体重和吸引力之间的负相关关系。即,越想瘦的人越认为瘦的人有吸引力。由此可见,人们会把自己对瘦和吸引力之间的关系投射到对他人体像的判断中。

综合研究一和研究二的结果,我们可以发现北京市大学生中的体像态度不容乐观,尤其是女性大学生。求瘦倾向的个体也会将自己对体像的认知投射到对他人体像的加工上。这些发现提示在健康人群中积极开展干预来应对体像问题的必要性。

其他摘要

Body image is inner representation of one’s body size, shape and appearance. The picture does not always reflect our real figure. Body image attitude include satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Many studies on body image focus on the body weight. Dissatisfaction with weight goes two directions. Someone may want to gain some weight while others may want to lose some weight. Drive for thinness is the core character of anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa and shows serious impact on patient’s health. Body image dissatisfaction emerges when there is a gap between current body image and theideal body image. Studies, mainly conducted in Western countries, generally indicated that body image dissatisfaction correlated to low self-esteem and high level of negative emotions.

It has been speculated that the Eastern culture may play aprotective role on individual’s body image. However, sparkling evidence showed that many individuals in the East were also dissatisfied with their own body image. Two questions were addressed in the current study. Study I focused on the body image attitude in collegestudents in Beijing municipality. Study II invested how college students, especially those drive for thinness, perceive other’s body image.

To that end, we surveyed 445 college students in Study I. Their body image dissatisfaction was measured by Figure Rating Scale. Negative emotions were measured by Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale and UCLA Loneliness Scale. Self-esteem and subjective wellbeing were also tested. In addition, the extremeweight control behaviors commonly taken by those with eating disorders were measured by self-compiled five-item checklist. Results showed that 87 percent of college students were dissatisfied with their current body image, and most of them were neither satisfied with their height nor with their weight. There is no gender difference in the proportion of individuals with body image dissatisfaction proportion of individuals with body image dissatisfaction. Gender differences presented on the direction of body image dissatisfaction.Majority of women wanted a thinner body, while those wanted a fuller figure and those wanted a thinner figure were comparable in numbers among males. In addition, only in females, body image dissatisfaction score correlated negatively to self-esteem and life satisfaction and positively to negative emotions. Therefore, body image dissatisfaction brought more concerns to the females. Significant correlation between the tendency of drive for thinness and unusual weight control behaviors was observed in both males and females. The ideal weight set by majority of females is below the health level, and even significantly smaller than the most attractive female figure chosen by males.

One hundred college students (50 men and 50 women) in Beijing were recruited in Study II. They were presented 126 full-body photos of young adults of their age (63 male and 63 female). The participants were instructed to evaluate the height in centimeter, weight in kilogram (in Block 1) and attractiveness with a 9-point Likert Scale (Block 2) of each picture presented. Their degree of drive for thinness and negative emotions were also measured with the same tools in Study I.

There were several interesting findings in Study II. Firstly, individuals who drive for thinness tend to overestimate the weight of same-sex others; Secondly, the women who drive for thinness tended to underestimate others attractiveness. Similar findings were previously reported in patients with anorexia nervosa, who drive for thinness in an extreme manner. Thirdly, there was a negative correlation between the attractiveness score and body image mass (BMI, calculated based on the evaluated height and weight), muchstronger for female pictures than for male pictures thus supporting the trend of “thinner is better” in mainland China. supporting the trend of “thinner is better” in mainland China. Through the hierarchical linear model, it was revealed that the tendency of drive for thinness could strengthened the relationship between BMI and attractiveness evaluations. Thus, those wanted a thinner body image, also projected their belief that “thinner isbetter” to other’s body image.

To summary, body image attitude of college students in Beijing municipality is not optimistic, especially for female students. Individuals who drive for thinness also project their belief about the relationship between BMI and attractiveness to other’s body. These findings suggest effective intervention is needed among college students.

语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/27304
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
梁瑞. 大学生体像态度及体像知觉特点的研究[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2018.
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