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文学阅读—值得挖掘的孤独症自我干预途径
Alternative TitleLiterary Reading - A Self Intervention Approach for Autism
刘亚萍1,3; 陈文锋2; 傅小兰1,3
2018-10
Conference Name第二十一届全国心理学学术会议
Correspondent Emailbnu_et@163.com ; wchen@ruc.edu.cn
Source Publication摘要集-第二十一届全国心理学学术会议
Pages1461-1463
Conference Date10.30-11.2
Conference Place北京
Contribution Rank1
Abstract

摘要:国内孤独症研究起步相对较晚,其诊断和干预也存在很大改善空间。很多孤独症儿童不能及时得到准确的诊断和专业的干预,甚至被限制与外界的接触。这加剧了许多孤独症儿童的社交能力发展迟滞,导致其长期失去社会交往和沟通,缺乏心理疏导而更容易引发自残或暴力倾向的社会隐患。因此,孤独症干预的一条途径是改善这些儿童的社交沟通。我们认为,阅读将是孤独症儿童与外部世界建立连接的重要窗口。

阅读是每个人都应具备的终身学习能力,且能离开社交场景独立进行。孤独症儿童也可以通过阅读获得基本的社交体验,从而缓解社交障碍带来的心理压力与负性情绪。目前针对特教老师的孤独症阅读物很多,但专门面向孤独症少儿的正规出版物在国内还是空白。正如普通教育相似的发展趋势,孤独症儿童的教育也需要由“以教师为中心”转向“以孩子为中心”,要根据孤独症儿童容易接纳的方式完善这个群体的教育模式。因此,我们必须加强“以孩子为中心”的阅读物的策划与出版,通过阅读可以让孩子们自我干预,及时补足孤独症儿童无法通过正常社交获取的社会文化知识,缓解社交压力来维持身心健康,更好地融入社会,提高整体生命质量。

但是,普通少儿读物的撰写形式和内容并不完全适合孤独症少儿阅读。针对孤独症儿童语言学习障碍的言语训练,其核心途径之一是重复和简化。因此,我们提出,孤独症少儿启蒙期的阅读物应该具备如下几个特点:内容上常用词频要高,句法要简单,句型变换要相对有限,甚至需要牺牲某些普通孩子通过阅读可以提升的文学价值。我们探索了孤独症少儿能接纳的阅读方式以及对应阅读内容的研发,以“孤独症儿童生活和学习能力的正向干预模式”为理论指导,策划孤独症少儿读物,将孤独症领域的学术研究和实践成果通过文学的方式落地,转化为最终能使孤独症儿童及其家庭受益的产品形式,以期对正向干预模式理论进行实践验证并普及到社会大众。

Other Abstract

Abstract:Autism research in China started relatively late, and there is more space for improvement in its diagnosis and intervention. Many autistic children can not get accurate diagnosis and professional intervention in time, even limit their contact with the outside world. These have aggravated the delay in the children's social ability, resulting in their long-term loss of social communication, lack of psychological counseling and more likely to cause social hidden dangers of self-harm or violence. Therefore, one way to intervene with autism is to improve these children's social communication. We believe reading will be an important window for autistic children to connect with the outside world.

Reading is a lifelong learning ability that everyone should have, an independent activity that can leave the social scene. Autistic children can get basic social experience through reading, thereby alleviating the psychological pressure and negative emotions caused by social barriers. At present, there are many autistic publications for special education teachers, but little for autistic children. Just as the similar development trend of common education,the education of autistic children also needs to be transformed from "Teacher centered" into "children centered". We should improve their education mode according to the acceptable way of autistic children. Therefore, we must strengthen the planning and publication of reading materials of "children centered". By reading, children can be self-intervention to supplement the social and cultural knowledge that autistic children can't get through normal social instincts, alleviate social pressure to maintain physical and mental health, better integrate into society, and improve the overall quality of life.

In any case, the style and content of ordinary children's books are not entirely suitable for children with autism. Repetition and simplification are the one of core approaches to speech training according to the mechanism of language learning disorder in autistic children. Therefore, we put forward the reading materials for the enlightenment period of autistic children should have the following characteristics: the common word frequency is high in content, the syntax is simple, and the transformation of sentence patterns is relatively limited, that is to give up the literary value of some ordinary children get through reading. We explores the reading methods and contents of autistic children easy to accept. Based on the theoretical basis of the "positive intervention model for the life and learning ability of autistic children" and planning the autistic children's reading materials. Let the academic research results in the field of autism are transformed through literature, and the empirical research results are transformed into the product forms that can eventually benefit the autistic children and their families. We expect to verify the theory of positive intervention mode and popularize it to the public.

Language中文
Document Type会议论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/27348
Collection认知与发展心理学研究室
Affiliation1.中国科学院心理研究所
2.中国人民大学心理学系
3.中国科学院大学心理学系
First Author AffilicationInstitute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
刘亚萍,陈文锋,傅小兰. 文学阅读—值得挖掘的孤独症自我干预途径[C],2018:1461-1463.
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