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特征的呈现方式对类别学习中规则和相似性知识获得的影响
Alternative TitleThe Effect of Presenting Mode of Different Features on theAcquisition of Rule-Based and Similarity-Based Knowledgein Category Learning
吴洁1,2; 付秋芳1,2; 周晓燕1,2; 孙洵伟1,2
First Author吴洁
2018-09-20
Source Publication心理科学
Correspondent Emailfuqf@psych.ac.cn
ISSN671-6981
Subtype期刊论文
Volume41Issue:05Pages:1031-1038
Contribution Rank1
Abstract

采用原型变异任务,通过操纵规则和相似性特征的呈现通道,探讨特征的呈现方式对类别学习中规则和相似性知识获得的影响。结果发现,在听觉-视觉条件下,习得规则的人数显著多于习得相似性的人数;而在视觉-听觉和视觉-视觉条件下,则不存在显著差异;且三种条件下,习得规则的正确率均高于习得相似性的正确率。结果说明,特征的呈现方式影响对规则和相似性特征的习得,在听觉通道呈现规则时,被试更倾向基于规则分类。

Other Abstract

Abstract The present study was aimed to explore the effect of presenting mode of different features on the acquisition of rule-based and similaritybased knowledge in category learning. There were two prominent opposing approaches on what was acquired in category learning: the rule-based approach assumed that the optimal strategy of categorization was easy to verbalize and the category was learned via hypothesis testing, whereas the similarity-based approach assumed that the optimal strategy of categorization was not easy to verbalize and the category was learned through comparing the similarity of the stimulus to the prototype. It was found that the acquisition of rule-based and similarity-based knowledge in category learning was affected by the factors such as the amount of training, working memory, and category structures. Interestingly, it was found recently that participants performed better in the auditory condition than in the visual condition in the rule-based task, but participants performed better in the visual condition than in the auditory condition in the information-integration task. Thus, we expected that the mode in which the features were presented might influence the acquisition of rule-based features and similarity-based features in category learning. To address this issue, a modified prototype distortion task was adopted, in which the category member included one rule-based feature and ten similarity-based features. In the auditory-visual condition, the similarity-based features were from visual stimuli that varied along 10 binary dimensions, while the rule-based feature was from auditory stimuli that was different in pitch. In the visual-visual condition, the similarity-based features were identical to the auditory-visual condition, while the rule-based feature was defined by the gray scale of the background of the visual stimulus. In the visual-auditory condition, the rule-based feature was identical to the visual-visual condition, while the similarity-based features were from auditory stimuli that varied along 10 binary dimensions. In the training phase, participants were asked to indicate which category the stimulus belonged to, and then the feedback of the correctness was provided after their response. Each block included 20 trials, and there were eight blocks, for a total of 160 trials. To examine whether people learned the similarity-based or rule-based features, we adopted the ambiguous stimuli that could be classified to different categories on the basis of similarity-based or rule-based features in the testing phase. There were 40 ambiguous stimuli and 20 trained stimuli in the testing phase. The results showed that for all participants in the three conditions the accuracy gradually increased with training, indicating all of them acquired some knowledge about the category. Interestingly, the accuracy was significantly higher for participants who categorized the ambiguous stimuli on the basis of the rule-based feature, i.e., acquired the rule-based features, than those who categorized the ambiguous stimuli on the basis of the similaritybased features, i.e., acquired the similarity-based features, suggesting that the performance for rule-based learning was superior to the similaritybased learning. More importantly, the number of participants who acquired rule-based features was significantly more than that of those who acquired similarity-based features in the auditory-visual condition, but there were no significant differences in the visual-auditory and visual-visual condition. The results suggested the presenting mode of different features influenced the acquisition of rule-based features and similarity-based knowledge in category learning, and people tended to categorize stimuli on the basis of the rule-based feature when it was presented in the auditory modality.

Keyword多通道 类别学习 规则 相似性
DOI10.16719/j.cnki.1671-6981.20180502
Language中文
Project Intro.

中国国家自然科学基金和德国研究基金项目(NSFC 61621136008/DFG TRR-169);; 国家自然科学基金项目(61632004)的资助

CSCD IDCSCD:CSCD
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Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/27726
Collection脑与认知科学国家重点实验室
Corresponding Author付秋芳
Affiliation1.中国科学院心理研究所脑与认知科学国家重点实验室
2.中国科学院大学心理学系
First Author AffilicationInstitute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Corresponding Author AffilicationInstitute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
吴洁,付秋芳,周晓燕,等. 特征的呈现方式对类别学习中规则和相似性知识获得的影响[J]. 心理科学,2018,41(05):1031-1038.
APA 吴洁,付秋芳,周晓燕,&孙洵伟.(2018).特征的呈现方式对类别学习中规则和相似性知识获得的影响.心理科学,41(05),1031-1038.
MLA 吴洁,et al."特征的呈现方式对类别学习中规则和相似性知识获得的影响".心理科学 41.05(2018):1031-1038.
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