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中国人的独特性需求与工作重要性和工作特征
Alternative TitleNeed for Uniqueness and Job Importance & JCM in China
洪钰
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor蔡华俭
2017-10
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline应用心理学
Keyword独特性需求 工作重要性 工作特征模型 工作设计 跨文化
Abstract

中国通常被认为是典型的东亚文化代表,与西方一世界有着鲜明对比,而独特性需求被看作是两种文化差异的重要表现方面。然而,中国在过去约五十年中,经历了史无前例的经济增长和社会变迁,社会价值观和特质都发生了变化,这对当代中国人的独特性需求水平有何影响?本文就此展开论述。首先回顾总结一了关于独特性需求的定义,系统阐述了环境和独特性关系的理论,通过总结分析近五十年来,与独特性需求相关的中国社会环境发生变化的数据,推测中国人的独特性需求水平有所增强。并且进一步回顾了工作与组织设计理论,以此模型为基础来探讨独特性需求在工作场景的意义。

随后,开展一了两个研究探讨当下中国人独特性需求在组织环境中的表达,研究一探讨了独特性需求和对工作、家庭重要性判断之间的关系,结果发现,个体独特性需求越高,对工作的重视程度也越高,而和家庭重要性关系不显著,意味着工作而不是家庭对当代中国人独特性需求的满足和表达具有重要作用;研究二基于经典的工作特征模型,进一步探讨了独特性需求和工作特征之间的关系,结果发现个体独特性需求越高,就会认为工作的多样性、任务认同性、任务重要性、工作自主性、反馈越重要。

本研究关注当下中国人心理变化对组织工作的影响,作为关于独特性需求和工作价值与特征关系的第一个研究,第一次初步揭示了独特性和工作之间的关系,拓展了人类对独特性重要性及其影响的认识;第一次揭示了个体对工作特征的期望和个体的独特性需求有关,加深了对工作特征模型的认识;第一次力「!深了独特性需求在中国文化下重要性的认识。整体上不仅具有重要的理论价值,更具有重要的实践价值,对于中国文化下的企业管理实践具有重要指示意义。

Other Abstract

China is typically perceived as the exemplar East Asian culture, which stands in stark contrast to the Western world. One dimension that marls this East}VJest divide is the need for uniqueness. However, China has undergone unprecedented economic growth and social change for almost eve decades, with changes in values and traits. Are modern Chinese people still low in their need for uniqueness? Hence, this paper focused on this question.

First, We reviewed the definition of need for uniqueness, as well as the distinction with individualism. Then stated the link between the environment and individuals' need for uniqueness, which can provide a strong theoretical foundation for understanding this social change in China and its implications on people's need for uniqueness. It can be suspected that people have a stronger needs for uniqueness on account of the changes data fox social environment of 50 years . We also reviewed the job characteristics model, to analyze realistic significance, especially in the field of job design. Two studies were conducted to examine the relation of need for uniqueness with work and job characteristics, respectively.

Study 1 found that people with high need for uniqueness also valued work but not family, suggesting the importance of work in uniqueness seeking. Based on job characteristic model, Study 2 found that people high in need for uniqueness also manifested higher expectation for skill diversity, task identity, task significance, job autonomy and feedback.

This study focuses on the influence of psychological changes on organizational worlc in China. As the first study of the relationship between uniqueness and work value and characteristics, it preliminary reveals the relationship between uniqueness and world firstly. At the same time, it reveals the individual's expectation of the work characteristic and need far uniqueness deepens our understanding of the work characteristic model. Theoretical and practical implications of these meaningful findings are discussed.

Pages35
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/28441
Collection社会与工程心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
洪钰. 中国人的独特性需求与工作重要性和工作特征[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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