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职业倦怠对抑郁症状的影响以及社会支持的调节作用研究
Alternative TitleInfluence of Job Burnout Depressive Symptoms and the Moderating Effect of Social Support
宋丽萍
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor李新影
2017-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline应用心理学
Keyword抑郁 职业倦怠 社会支持 调节作用 护士
Abstract

职业倦怠(job burnout & occupational burnout)是职场中常见的心理问题。Maslach在1981年对职业倦怠下的定义是:职业倦怠是在慢性工作压力下发生的,它包括三个维度:情绪耗竭、人格解体(或称讥俏)和职业效能感降低等症状。在西方的从业人群中,职业倦怠的发生率在13}^W7%之间。在我国,随着改革开放和经济振兴,各种变化层出不穷,职场人士面临各种压力,职业倦怠的问题也变得愈来愈突出。基于高发人群(如医护工作者、警察、教育工作者等)的数据显示,职业倦怠发生率已达到33.8%一%.19%。职业倦怠引发失眠、冠心病等多种健康问题。近年来,职业倦怠与抑郁症状的关系引起了广泛关注。因此,必须找到能够调节职业倦怠和抑郁症状二者关系的因素,最大程度地降低职业倦怠对健康的危害。既有研究发现,社会支持在抑郁症状的发展过程中起到了积极的保护作用,充足的社会支持能够延缓抑郁症状的发展,提高治疗效果。那么社会支持很可能在职业倦怠和抑郁症状的关系中起到调节作用。本研究以护士这一职业倦怠高发人群为研究对象,分析职业倦怠、抑郁症状及社会支持的关系,旨在为临床心理卫生工作者提供理论依据。

论文通过三个研究来探讨社会支持在职业倦怠对抑郁症状的影响中的调节作用。研究一考察护士的职业倦怠状况,研究二考察职业倦怠和抑郁症状的关系,研究三考察社会支持在其中的调节作用。2016年4-6月,采用方便抽样的方法,在北京某综合医院招募护士700名进行问卷调查。采用病人健康问卷-9 ( PHQ-9 )测量抑郁症状水平,职业倦怠量表(CMBI)测量职业倦怠水平,社会支持评定量表(SSRS)测量社会支持水平。发放问卷700份,回收有效问卷509份,有效回收率是73%。护士的年龄在22岁到55岁之间(M=33.5, SD=6.67 )。各计量资料间的相关性采用Pearson相关分析;各影响因素对职业倦怠和抑郁症状的影响采用单因素方差分析;社会支持对职业倦怠和抑郁症状关系的调节作用采用多元线性回归分析。

本研究的主要结果如下:

1.在所有被试当中,职业倦怠检出率为63.8%,社会支持得分为(41.6士7.0 ) , 职业倦怠得分为(43.56士12.2 ),抑郁症状得分为(6.3士S.6)。

2.职业倦怠总分及三个维度均与抑郁症状呈正相关;回归分析结果显示,职业倦怠程度越高,抑郁症状分值越高。

3.社会支持三个维度均与抑郁症状呈负相关。

4.不同基本情况下的职业倦怠和抑郁症状有差异。

5.社会支持在情绪耗竭与抑郁症状的关系中起到显著的调节作用,在人格解体和成就感降低两个维度上无显著的调节作用。

护士职业倦怠发生的现状不容乐观,良好的社会支持能够缓冲职业倦怠对抑郁症状的影响。

Other Abstract

Job burnout is a common psychological problem in the workplace. As defined by Maslach in 1981,job burnout is developed under chronic job pressure and has three dimensions, namely, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization( cynicism ),and reduced personal accomplishment, etc. The job burnout rate is 13%-27% among western workers. In China, the problem of job burnout is becoming more apparent along with the rapid economic development and rising pressure in the workplace. Data based on high-risk populations(such as medical workers,police,educational workers),show that job burnout t0ate has reached 33.8%一96.19%.Job burnout causes multiple health problems including insomnia and coronary heart disease,In recent years,the relationship between job burnout and depressive symptoms aroused extensive attention. Therefore,it is imperative to find factors that can capable of moderating the relationship between job burnout and depressive symptoms maximally reduce the

harm of job burnout to health.

Existing research results shows that social support plays a positive and protective part in the development of depressive symptoms and sufficient social support enables depressive symptoms to slow down its developing process and enhance the efficacy of treatment. Consequently, it is highly likely that social support has a moderating effect in the relationship between job burnout and depressive symptoms.

This study takes nurses,a high-risk group,as objects and analyses the relationship between job burnout, depressive symptoms and social support to provide workers of clinical psychology with theoretical bases.

The paper discusses the modertating effect of social support on the influence of exhaustion on depressive symptoms through three researches. The first research is to explore nurse job burnout. The second one is to explore the influence of job burnout on depressive symptoms. The third one is to explore the moderating effect of social support.

Seven hundred nurses of Peking Union 1Vlcdical College hospital were recruited by a convenience sampling methods froze April to June 2016.The Patient Health Questionair-9 CI'HQ-9),Chinese Maslach Burnout Inventory(UlVIT3I)and Social Support Dating Scale(SSIZS)were adopted to measure depressive symptoms,job burnout and social support, respectively. A total of 700 questionnaires were sent out and 509 valid questionnaires were received, The response rate was 73%.The age of nurses is 22 to 55 C M=33.5,SD=6.67). Pearson correlation analysis was used for correlation analysis. One-way ANOVA and multiple linear regression models were used when analyzing the influence of job burnout, social support and their interaction on depressive symptoms.

Research Results:

l .Of all participants, 63.8% had heightened burnout levels. The mean score of social support was(41.6士7.0),the mean score of job burnout was (43.56士12.2) the mean score of depressive symptoms was(6.3士5.6).

2.The job burnout,threc dimensions of it and depressive symptoms were positively correlated.

3.The three dimensions of support and depressive symptoms wart positively correlated.

4.Both job burnout and depressive symptoms arc variant under different circumstances.

5.The moderating effect of social support on the relationship between job burnout and depression was significant for exhaustion dimension(P<0.01),but not significant for depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment(Ps>0.05).

The status of job burnout among nurses in Peking Union Medical College Hospital is not optimistic. Favorable social support can buffer the detrimental effect of job burnout on depression.

Pages47
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/28665
Collection健康与遗传心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
宋丽萍. 职业倦怠对抑郁症状的影响以及社会支持的调节作用研究[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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