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12-18岁留守儿童亲社会行为的发展及其影响因素
Alternative TitleDevelopment and impact factors of Prosocial Behavior of 12-18Year Old Left-behind Children
陈宁
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor施建农
2015-11
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline发展与教育心理学
Keyword留守儿童 亲社会行为 发展 地区差异 家庭社会背景 主观认知因素
Abstract

留守儿童作为我国社会快速变迁和经济高速发展期存在的一个特殊群体,越来越受到社会各界的广泛关注。而留守儿童的社会适应性发展尤其受到了发展心理学研究者的重视。

本研究主要考察了12-18岁留守儿童亲社会行为发展及其影响因素。研究中采用了寇彧及其同事修订的《亲社会倾向量表一中文版》,对来自我国华北、东北、西北、华中、西南、华南和华东地区的8029名儿童(其中留守儿童2103名,普通儿童5926)的亲社会行为进行了调查,同时使用中国科学院心理研究所超常儿童研究中心在国家科技部支撑计划—《社会变迁过程中儿童青少年的心理发展特点及心理问题疏导与咨询技术项目》中统一编制的人口学调查间卷对儿童的个人信息,如是否住校、是否独生、是否有自己独立的房间和父母的文化程度,以及儿童对父母的关系、生活水平、家庭生活状况、未来学历期望、是否受人欺负和零花钱是否够用的主观认知水平做了调查。数据采用SPSS20.0进行分析。结果发现:

1)年龄趋势:留守和普通儿童的亲社会行为倾向,都表现出随年龄的增长先下降再上升的发展趋势,留守儿童的最低点在13岁,而普通儿童的最低点出现在16岁。除了在13岁和14岁组留守儿童的亲社会行为倾向显著低于普通儿童外,其余各年龄组的差异都不显著。

2)亲社会行为倾向分维度比较:留守和普通儿童在亲社会行为倾向的总分上差异显著,在六个分维度中:普通儿童得分都高于留守儿童;但只在公开和匿名两个维度上两类儿童差异显著;而利他维度、依从维度、情绪维度和紧急维度上的差异不显著。

3)性别差异:在总体亲社会行为倾向总分上都存在着女生得分普遍高于男生,但留守儿童性别差异不显著,而普通儿童性别差异显著。

4)地区间差异:留守和普通儿童的亲社会行为倾向地区差异显著。主要表现在东北、华中和西北三个地区的留守儿童的亲社会行为倾向显著低于对应地区的普通儿童,其他地区的两类儿童之间差异不显著。

5)客观家庭社会背景影响因素的差异比较:留守儿童的亲社会行为倾向得分在是否住校、是否独生、父母亲文化水平以及是否有独立房间这些家庭社会背景影响因素上只在父亲文化水平这一项上的差异显著,而普通儿童在这五项中差异都显著。

6)主观认知影响因素的差异比较:留守儿童的亲社会行为倾向得分在主观的健康水平、父母关系、生活状况满意度、学历期望、零花钱是否够用、是否被人欺负这些认知情感影响因素上差异都显著,只在主观生活水平上差异不显著。普通儿童亲社会行为倾向得分在上述所有项目上差异都显著。

Other Abstract

Left-behind children is a unique child population appeared in the period of rapid economic development and society shifting in Mainland China. The issues pertaining to the left-behind children, especially their social adaptations, obtained increasing attention from the public during the last two decades, and the special attentions are from developmental psychologists.

The development and its impact factors of prosocial behavior of left-behind children aged from 12- to 18-years old were investigated in the present study. 8029 children (include 2103 left-behind and 5926 regular children) from North, North-East, North-West, Central, South- West, South, and East China participated the investigation. The prosocial behavior tendency of these children was measured with Chinese version of Prosocial Tendency Measurement (PTM) revised by Kou and her colleagues. Meanwhile, children's personal information, such as boarding in school or not, only child or not, having an independent room or not, and parents' education levels, as well as children's attitudes about their parents' relationship, living standard, situation of family life, expected highest degree of education in the future, being spited or not, and enough pocket money or not, was collected with the questionnaires employed in the national project "The psychological development of child and youth and psychological counselling techniques duringchanging society" supported by National Key Technologies R&D Program and conducted by the Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The data were analyzed by SPSS20.0.

Following results were obtained:

1) Developmental trend: The prosocial tendency of either left-behind or regular children appeared declining first then increasing from 12- to 18-year old groups with the lowest at 13 years old for left-behind cohort and the lowest at 16 for the regular cohort. The differences between left-behind and regular children in most age groups were not significant except age 13 andl4 groups (left-behind children's PTMs were lower than the regular's).

2) Differences between left-behind and regular children on PTM total and sub-scales: The difference between left-behind and regular children on total scores of PTM was significant (the scores of regular children were higher than left-behind children's), and also significant on sub-dimensions of public and synonymous, but not significant on emotional, dire, altruistic and compliant dimensions.

3) Gender differences: In general, the total PTM scores of female students were higher than that of male students, and a significant gender difference was found in regular children, but not in left-behind cohort.

4.) Geographical differences: There were significant differences on PTM between different areas. PTM of left-behind children from Northeast China, Central China, and Northwest China were significantly lower than their regular peers from relevant areas, and the differences of PTM between two cohorts from other areas were not significant.

5) Effects of objective factors about children's family: The effects of 'boarding or not', `only child or not', `parent's educational levels', and having an independent room or not' on the PTM of both types of children were significant except the effect of father' educational level on the PTM of left-behind children was not significant

6) Effects of subjective or emotional factors about children's family and life: The effects of children's `physical health', `subjective attitudes about their parents' relationship', `subjective living standard', `satisfaction of family life', `expected highest degree of education in the future',`enough pocket money or not', and `being spited or not' were significant except the effect of `subjective living standard' on left-behind children's PTM was not significant.

Pages60
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/28841
Collection认知与发展心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
陈宁. 12-18岁留守儿童亲社会行为的发展及其影响因素[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院大学,2015.
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