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顺序呈现对认知加工时间和时间估计的影响
Alternative TitleEffect of presention orders on cognitive processing time and estimated time
李孟杰
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor陈毅文
2015-10
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline应用心理学
Keyword有序 无序 时间估计 加工时间
Abstract

现代生活带来各种大量丰富的信息,碎片化信息时代使人们越来越强调对时间的管理,通过人们认知方式的改变,降低认知负荷,进而提高工作生活效率己成为一个热点问题。人们通过各种方式来节约时间,提高工作生活效率来适应快速发展的社会。

在回顾以往的研究中,发现系列顺序可以影响人的认知加工,尤其是在记忆、言语及思维等过程。顺序为按次第区分,排列。可以分为有序和无序。本研究首先从言语单词工作记忆任务入手,根据言语结构的分类和时间名词在时间估计中的影响,设计了言语时间记忆估计任务。结合工作生活实际应用,以及顺序对情境模型建立影响的研究,我们提出生活场景时间估计任务。考虑言语等文字性表征与空间图形表征的认知差异,我们选取瑞文图形类比推理任务研究有序对加工时间和时间估计的影响。简言之,本文旨在从工作记忆、言语情景模型、图形类比推理的角度,探讨顺序呈现对加工时间及时间估计的影响。同时探讨了工作记忆、流体智力、类比推理能力、加工速度之间的相互作用机制。

本研究通过30名预试的问卷调查结果显示,顺序呈现对言语、记忆、类比推理均存在影响趋势,并对单词词汇记忆任务的长度进行了缩减和优化,生活情境实验任务的句子表述通过赋分法得到“最优顺序”,瑞文图形类比推理任务不同难度题目的检测顺序性效度进行筛选和优化。随后通过对北京地区108名成人被试进行正式实验,研究发现在词汇工作记忆任务、句子时间工作记忆任务、生活情境时间估计任务、瑞文图形类比推理任务中,有序呈现相较无序表现为更短的加工时间。在词汇工作记忆任务、瑞文图形类别推理任务中,有序呈现相较无序有更短的估计时间。在词汇工作记忆任务、瑞文图形类比推理任务等复杂认知加工过程中,均存在显著地时间高估现象。

以上研究结果表明,有序的呈现可以降低认知加工时间,通过顺序排列可以提高人们工作生活的效率,为项目管理、企业绩效管理、职业生涯规划提供参考。

Other Abstract

Modern life has brought a lot of rich variety of information, fragmented information age makes it more and more emphasis on time management, by changing the way people understand and reduce the cognitive load,山us improving the efficiency of working life has become a hot issue. People in various ways to save time and improve the efficiency of life to adapt to the rapid development of society.

After reviewing previous studies and found that the series order may affect people's cognitive processing, especially in memory, speech and thinking and other processes. .rdcr by order to distinguish the arrangement. It can be divided into ordered and disordered. In this stu即,the first word from the verbal working memory task start time based on the classification and influence the structure of verbal noun in time estimation, design estimate verbal memory task time. Combined with the practical application of working life, and the order to study the impact of situational model, we propose scenes of life time estimation task. Consider the text of the speech and other cognitive differ0ences between representation and graphical representation of space, we choose Maven impact study ordered graphic analogical reasoning tasks on the processing time and the time estimates. In short, this paper aims from the perspective of working memory, verbal scenario model, graphics analogical reasoning, and to explore the impact on the processing sequence showing time and time estimates. Also discussed the working memory, fluid intelligence interaction mechanism, analogical reasoning, processing speed.

In this study, the survey results show that 30 pre-trial order of presentation of the speech, memory, reasoning by analogy influence trends are present, and the length experimental task of representation by Fu points system to give "the best order," Raven graphics analogical reasoning task order of the validity of different detection difficult subject screening and optimization. Followed by 13cijing area 108 adult subjects formal experiment, the researchers found that working memory task in the vocabulary, sentence time working memory task, life situations time estimation task, Raven graphics analogical reasoning task, orderly presentation performance compared disorder a shorter processing time. In the vocabulary of working memory task, Raven of the vocabulary word memory task were reduced and optimized life situations sentence graphics category reasoning task, orderly presentation disorder have a shorter compared to the estimated time. In the vocabulary of working memory task, Raven graphics analogical-reasoning tasks in complex cognitive processes arc significantly overvalued local bane phenomenon.

The results above show that orderly presentation of cognitive processing time can be reduced by the order can improve the efficiency of people's work and life, provide a reference for project management, enterprise performance management, career planning.

Pages50
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/28850
Collection社会与工程心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
李孟杰. 顺序呈现对认知加工时间和时间估计的影响[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院大学,2015.
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