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冥想训练改善注意瞬脱的效应及机制研究
Alternative TitleModulation and Underlying mechanism of Meditation on Attentional Blink
王玉正
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor罗非
2018-06
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Name理学博士
Degree Discipline认知神经科学
Keyword冥想 注意矫脱 机制 性别 训练方案
Abstract

冥想是一系列注意训练方法的集合,通过对注意和觉知(awareness)的训练,对心理加工过程进行更好的自主控制,进而提升整体的心理幸福感,培育出诸如平和、清明、专注等特定能力。先前研究发现,冥想专家经过长期修行之后,能有效地提升专注水平,改善注意分配。

注意瞬脱(Attentional Blink)是注意领域中有代表性的指标,能反映出个体的注意分配水平。注意瞬脱被现代心理学家认为是人类在注意信息加工领域中无法突破的三大瓶颈之一。但是,已有研究主要集中在冥想专家与新手之间的比较,缺乏纵向研究。既难以排除己有的组间差异,也不能进行因果推论。为了解决上述问题,拟通过三个研究,四个实验来探索冥想训练尤其是短期冥想训练对注意瞬脱的改善效应及其神经机制。

研究一探索冥想训练对普通个体改善注意瞬脱的效应。采用随机对照试验,分别对大学生进行八周冥想训练或者等待对照,结果发现,冥想组显著提升了冥想水平和内心平静程度,注意水平显著提升。而且注意水平的提升与冥想水平和内心平静提升程度成显著正相关关系。这说明八周冥想训练可以显著改善普通个体的注意瞬脱。

研究二探索不同短期冥想训练方案对普通个体改善注意瞬脱的效应。实验一减少训练时间,不改变训练间隔,采用4周间隔式冥想训练方案。结果发现间断式冥想训练虽然可以提升冥想水平和内心平静程度,但是注意瞬脱成绩下降,可能是由于4周间隔式冥想训练方案优先训练出个体的专注能力,力口剧注意瞬脱现象。因此实验二减少训练时间的同时将间隔式训练调整为连续式训练。采用4天连续式冥想训练方案。同时加入游戏训练组作为阳性对照。结果发现4天连续式冥想训练可以显著提升注意瞬脱效应,并且首先体现在女性群体中。

研究三探索短期冥想训练方案改善普通个体注意瞬脱的机制。通过脑电技术比较冥想组与对照组在注意瞬脱任务中的P3波差异。结果发现冥想组在非瞬脱情况下与瞬脱情况相比,第一个目标刺激所诱发的P3波幅更小,说明冥想训练减少了对第一个目标刺激认知资源的固着,更好地实现了注意资源分配。

综上所述,本研究证实了短期冥想改善注意瞬脱的可行性;实现了不同类型短期冥想训练方案的比较和优化,证明了4天连续性冥想训练方案相比于4周间断式冥想训练效果更好。发现了短期冥想训练}抑性别差异,优先出现在女性群体中;发现了短期冥想训练改善注意瞬脱的机制,是减少了对Tl目标的注意固着,实现了注意资源的合理分配。为人类通过冥想训练克服注意信息加工过程中的瓶颈提供了可能。

Other Abstract

Meditation refers to a family of self-regulation practices that focus on training attention and awareness in order to bring mental processes under greater voluntary control and thereby foster general mental well-being and development and specific capacities such as calm, clarity, and concentration. Previous studies showed that meditation experts have greater improvement in concentration and attentional distribution after meditation retreat.

The attentional blink (AB) is a transient attention cost that reflects the attentional distribution. It is regarded as one of the three bottlenecks in the information processing. Previous studies showed that meditation experts had better attention skills and showed improvement in the attentional blink. However, evidence from longitudinal study for the benefits of short-term meditation training remains scarce. Here we present a series of studies to explore potential effecets and underlying mechanism in short-teem meditation training on an attentional blink task.

On study 1,participants were randomized in meditation group or waiting-list group. They were receiving an eight-week meditation training and just-waiting period, respectively. Results showed that participants in the meditation group increased the meditation level, improved the degree of inner peace, and performed better in the AB task.

On study 2, a 4-week intermittent meditation training program and a 4-day consecutive meditation training program were presented in experiment 1 and experiment 2, respectively. Results showed that although the former meditation training program could increased the meditation level and imporved the degree of inner peace, it performed worse in the AB task compared to the control group. By contrast, the latter meditation training program showed the effectiveness of 4-day short-term meditation trainiong on AB task, and overperformed than the game training control group and the waiting-list control group. The effects were mainly showed in the female participants.

On study 3, we explore the modulation of meditation on attention blink and its underlying mechanisms using event}related brain potential (ERP). Results showed that meditation training; reduced brain-resource allocation to the first target in non-blinked trials, as reflected by a smaller TI-elicited P3b, a brain-potential index of resource allocation.

Overall, these studies provided evidence to: (1) confirm the feasibility of short-term meditation training on attentional blink, (2) make comparison and optimization of different types of short-term meditation training programs, and to show that the effects of 4-day consective meditation program on AB was better than that of 4-week intermitted meditation program; (3) show the gender differences in the effect of meditation training, which is prior to females; (4) explore the mechanism of short-term meditation training on attention blink. All these make it possible to overcome the bottleneck in information processing through meditation training.

Pages96
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/28875
Collection健康与遗传心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王玉正. 冥想训练改善注意瞬脱的效应及机制研究[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院大学,2018.
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