|Alternative Title||The Relationships Among Positive Parenting, Children's Disclosure and Migrant Children's Empathy|
相比城市儿童，流动儿童面临较明显的适应不良，存在较明显的行为问题和体验到较多的消极情绪;且男生的问题较女生明显。研究表明儿童的共情有助于解决这些问题。在共情的影响因素中，家庭因素，包括教养方式和儿童自我表露均对共情有显著的影响且往往是相对容易改变的。本文针对学龄早期流动儿童群体，首先从母亲教养角度，考察积极教养方式(母亲对儿童接纳和母亲对儿童消极情绪的回应)与儿童共情的关系;其次从亲子互动角度，考察儿童自我表露在前述两种积极教养方式分别与儿童共情关系中的中介作用以及该中介是否受到性别的调节。本研究采用家长接纳一拒绝教养方式问卷、改编的回应儿童消极情绪量表、儿童自我表露问卷和儿童共情问卷进行问卷测量，对325名8-10岁流动儿童进行研究。其中150名被试参与问卷改编和预测试，169名(男生81人，女生88人;年龄:9.30士0.56)作为有效被试参与数据分析。首先，通过结构方程模型的分析发现:母亲对儿童接纳和母亲对消极情绪的回应均能促进儿童共情，母亲对消极情绪的回应比母亲对儿童接纳对流动儿童共情的促进作用更大。其次，从亲子互动角度，考虑儿童自我表露作为中介变量，采用Bootstrapping的检验显示:母亲对儿童消极情绪回应通过儿童自我表露影响儿童共情的间接效应为0.10，间接效应的90%的置信区间为[0.04, 0.19]，不包括0，中介作用显著。母亲对儿童接纳通过儿童自我表露影响儿童共情的间接效应为0.19，间接效应的90%的置信区间为田.0}, 0.36]，不包括。，中介作用显著。进一步考虑儿童性别，(1)经过有调节的中介关系验证，对于女生来说，母亲对女生消极情绪的回应能够通过女生的自我表露来促进女生的共情(indirect effect = 0.17, P < 0.01)，而对于男生来说，母亲对男生的消极情绪的回应不能够通过男生的自我表露来促进男生的共情(indirect effect=0.04, P > 0.05); (2)经过简单斜率检验，母亲对儿童接纳能够促进女生自我表露，b simple = 1.02, P < 0.001，对于男生来说，母亲对儿童接纳对男生自我表露的效果也显著，b simple = 0.43, P < 0.05。本文的主要结论是:(1)在母亲对流动儿童的教养方式上，母亲对儿童消极情绪的回应比母亲对儿童接纳更能够促进流动儿童的共情。(2)考虑到儿童对母亲的亲密性，亦即儿童的自我表露，母亲对儿童接纳比母亲对儿童消极情绪的回应通过儿童自我表露对流动儿童共情的促进作用更大。(3)儿童自我表露在母亲对儿童消极情绪的回应和流动儿童共情之间的关系中起到的中介作用受到儿童性别的调节。具体来说，对男童而言，母亲对其消极情绪的回应不能通过男童的自我表露来促进流动男童的共情。作为对比，不管是男童还是女童，母亲的接纳都可以通过其自我表露来促进其共情。
Compared to urban children, migrant children face more challenging social adaptation, exhibit more problematic behaviors and feel more negative emotions; in addition, boys have more problems than girls do. Existing research shows that children's empathy may help to alleviate these problems. Among the contributors to empathy, family factors such as parenting and children's disclosure are very important and are more likely to be altered. This thesis is focused on early grade-school migrant children's empathy. First, from the perspective of parenting, it investigates the relationship between positive parenting (maternal acceptance and maternal coping with children's negative emotions) and children's empathy. Second, from the parent-child interaction perspective it studies whether children's disclosure may serve as a moderator in the relationship between each of the aforementioned positive parenting variables and children's empathy, as well as whether this mediation is moderated by children's gender. Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire, Revised Coping with Children's Negative Emotions Scale, Children's Disclosure Scale and Empathic, and Prosocial Response to Another's Distress Scale were used to measure 325 children (age 8-10) from migrant children schools. Among them, 150 children joined the process of pi0eliminary tests and the other 169 children (81 boys, 88 girls; Age=9.30士0.56) were measured and analyzed in the following processes. First, applying structural equation modeling it has been found that both maternal acceptance and maternal coping with children's negative emotions promoted children's empathy, and that the effects of maternal coping with children's negative emotions were more pronounced. seconds from the mother-child interaction perspective by treating children’s disclosure as a mediating factor analysis applying Bootstrapping techniques has shown that the indirect effect from maternal coping with children's negative emotions to children's empathy through children's disclosure was 0.10, with a 90% confidence interval [0.04, 0.19] which does not include 0 meaning the mediating effect is significant; the indirect effect from maternal acceptance to children's empathy through children's disclosure was 0.19, with a 90% confidence interval [0.08, 0.36] which does not include 0 meaning the mediating effect is significant. Furthermore, taking gender difference into consideration, (1) it has been found through the validation of this moderated (by gender) mediation that, the indirect effect from maternal coping with children's negative emotions to children's empathy through children's disclosure was stronger and significant for girls only (indirect effect=0.17, P<0.01;while for boys: indirect effect=0.04, P>0.005); (2) it has been shown through the simple slope test that the indirect effect from maternal acceptance to children's disclosure was significant for both girls and boys (for girls: b simple =1.02, P<0.001;for boys: b simple=0.43, P<0.05). The major conclusions of this thesis are: (1) Compared to maternal acceptance, maternal coping with children's negative emotions plays a more important role for promoting early grade一school migrant children's empathy; (2) After incorporating children's disclosure, maternal acceptance plays a more important role than maternal coping with children's negative emotions for prompting empathy through childt0en's disclosure; (3) The mediating effect of children's disclosure in the relationship between maternal coping with children's negative emotions and children's empathy is moderated by gender. Specifically, for migrant boys, maternal coping with children's negative emotions does not promote children's empathy through children's disclosure. In contrast, maternal acceptance promotes empathy through children's disclosure for both migrant girls and boys.
|Keyword||流动儿童 积极教养方式 儿童自我表露 共情 性别差异|
|Place of Conferral||中国科学院心理研究所|
|吴丽芸. 母亲积极教养方式、儿童自我表露与流动儿童共情的关系[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院大学,2015.|
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