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贵州省儿童自我效能感与饮食认知倾向及行为研究
Alternative TitleCorrlation of chi1dren's self-efficacy and dietary congnitive tendency, behavior in Guizhou Proince
熊敏
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor朱莉琪
2015-11
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline发展与教育心理学
Keyword儿童 自我效能感 饮食认知倾向 饮食相关行为
Abstract

儿童时期是饮食相关行为发展和形成的关键时期,饮食相关行为将会对人的一生健康产生重要的影响。因此,对儿童饮食相关行为及其影响因素的研究显得尤为重要。近年来,学者们利用结合了社会心理学、行为学、健康教育学、传播学等多学科交叉实践而产生的健康信念模式(the Health Belief Model ,HBM)和社会认知理论(the Social Cognitive Theory, SCT)对儿童饮食相关行为进行研究,提出了认知、自我效能感对行为有预测和指导作用,但目前鲜有实证研究。本研究考察贵州省省会城市和县级以下城市两大地区儿童饮食认知倾向、一般自我效能感和相关行为的关系,为政府有关部门制定儿童饮食相关行为干预策略提供科学的理论依据。

研究对象为小学四年级至高中三年级的非住校生1500人。按地域经济水平,采用“地区一年级一班级”多阶段整群抽样法进行采样。在取得知情同意后,以班级为单位进行团体问卷测评儿童的饮食认知倾向和相关行为、一般自我效能感。

本次调查中,儿童饮食认知倾向有性别差异:男童优于女童;有年龄差异:

9~岁组得分最低而巧一岁组得分最高,得分有随年龄增大而增加的趋势。儿童一般自我效能感有地区差异:城市优于县级以下地区。儿童有利健康的饮食相关行为得分(以下简称为有利行为)有地区差异:省会城市均优于县级以下地区;

有性别差异:男童饮食选择行为的得分优于女童,女童饮食习惯行为得分优于男童;有年龄差异:11~岁组有利行为平均分最低而18~岁组最高,有利行为得分有随年龄增大而增加的趋势。儿童不利健康的饮食相关行为(以下简称为不利行为)有地区差异:县级以下地区劣于省会城市;有性别差异:男童各项不利行为得分均劣于女童;有年龄差异:18一岁不利行为得分最少而11一岁组最高。

儿童饮食认知倾向和有利健康的饮食相关行为之间存在显著正向相关;儿童饮食认知倾向和不利健康的饮食相关行为之间存在一定的负相关。一般自我效能感在儿童饮食认知倾向和有利健康的饮食相关行为之间、饮食认知倾向和不利健康的饮食相关行为之间的均有部分中介效应。

本次研究得出的结论:

1)儿童饮食认知倾向和饮食相关行为在不同地区、不同性别、不同年龄之间有差异。经济欠发达地区的儿童青少年饮食相关认知和行为的教育尤为迫切。

2)儿童一般自我效能感表现出明显的地区差异,经济较为发达的城市儿童自我效能感普遍高于县城以下的儿童。

3)儿童饮食认知倾向和饮食行为有相关性,其认知倾向的全面与否,会影响他们对饮食相关行为的选择,尤其是对有利于健康的饮食行为的选择。

4)一般自我效能感与饮食相关行为有显著相关性,并在饮食认知倾向和行为间起到中介作用,可促进有利于健康的饮食相关行为的出现,减少不利于健康饮食相关行为的发生。

Other Abstract

Childhood are a critical period for the development and formation of the dietary related behavior. Therefore, it is very important to study their dietary related behavior and its influencing factors. In recent years, the health belief model (HBM) and the social cognitive theory (SCT) which was born by combined the mufti-disciplinary cross practice with the social psychology, behavioral science, health education communication science has being used to study about the dietary related behavior of children. The cognition and self-efficacy has the prediction and guidance role on the behavior. But there had few empirical research. We investigated the dietary related cognitive tendency and behavior of children in the capital city and the county of Gruizhou province, and to analyzed the relationship between them. To provide theoretical basis of science for the relevant departments of the government which formulate the intervention strategies about the dietary related behavior of children. The survey object was 1500 non-resident students, they were from the fourth grade of primary school to the senior high school. Based on the regional economic level, there is used by the mufti-stage such as "region-grade-class" cluster sampling method to take the sample. After obtaining the informed consent, a group of the class was conducted to evaluate the dietary related cognitive tendency and behavior, general self efficacy. In this survey, the scores of dietary related cognitive tendency of children were: there were significant differences between boys and girls. 9-years old group was the lowest and 15- years old group were highest, the score increased with age. The general self-efficacy of children were: the regional difference is obvious, the provincial capital was higher than the county. The average total scores of the dietary related behavior of advantaged healthy were: there were different between the provincial capital and the county, the former were higher than the latter. The scores of boys' dietary choice behavior of advantaged healthy were higher than that of girls, and girls' eating habits of advantaged healthy wart higher than that of boys. the scores of eating habits of advantaged healthy were: 18- years old group was highest and 11-years old group was the lowest, the score increased with age, the difference was statistically significant. The total average scores of the dietary related behavior of disadvantaged healthy- of the children were: there were different between the provincial capital and the county, the latter wei0e higher than the former; the girls were lower than boys, the differences wart statistically significant; 18- years old was the lowest and the 11-years old was the highest. Thcrc showed significant positive correlation between the dietary related cognitive tendency and behavior of children There was a certain degree negative correlation between the dietary related cognitive tendency and the dietary related behavior of advantaged healthy of children. The partial mediation effect of the general self efficacy was significantly between the dietary cognitive tendency and the dietary related behavior of advantaged healthy. The partial mediation effect of the general self-efficacy was exist between the dietary cognitive tendency and the dietary related behavior of disadvantaged healthy.

The conclusions were:

1)The congnitive tendency and the dietary related behaviors of children who were different gender or grades were different. The dietary related education of children in underdeveloped regions is particularly urgent.

2)The children's general self-efficacy showed obvious differences in region, the econpmic development of the city children's self efficacy is generally higher than that of the county.

3)The cognitive tendency of children has a correlation with their dietary related behavior, the cognitive tendency of them will affect their choice of the related behaviors, especially for the healthy eating behavior.

4)The general self-efficacy and dietary related behaviors were significantly correlated, and which played an intermediary role in the correlation between the dietary related cognition and behavior, which can promote the occurrence of favorable health related behaviors, and weaken the occurrence of adverse health related behaviors.

Pages52
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/28878
Collection认知与发展心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
熊敏. 贵州省儿童自我效能感与饮食认知倾向及行为研究[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院大学,2015.
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