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伴侣黑暗人格与亲密关系的双向影响: 沟通方式的中介作用
Alternative TitleThe bidirectional association between dark personality and intimate relationship in Chinese coulples: The mediation effect of communication pattern
于悦
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor张建新
2018-06
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Name理学博士
Degree Discipline健康心理学
Keyword马基雅维利主义 精神病态 婚姻质量 婚姻稳定性 沟通方式
Abstract

亲密关系是衡量个体幸福感和生活质量的综合性指标,包括有关系质量、婚姻稳定性等方面,对个体发展和完善有着重要意义。影响亲密关系的因素众多,而人格始终被认为是其中的重要因素之一。前人普遍采用传统大五人格考察其与亲密关系的联结,然而除了神经质和宜人性以外,其他人格对亲密关系的预测均存在较为明显的不一致。同时有研究指出,大五人格过于强调人性的积极面,忽视了对消极厌恶特质的考察,因而无法反映个体人格的全貌。作为近年来备受关注的人格特质群,黑暗人格(Dark personality)以社会厌恶性和反社会性为特征,同时兼具适应性,显示出其现实和复杂人的一面,因此考察黑暗人格与亲密关系之间的联系具有较强的现实意义。更重要的是,根据人格与关系的互动模型理论(Personality relationship transaction),两者之间可能存在着双向(Bidirectional)影响,同时该理论也强调未来研究应更多关注发生在人格与关系之间的心理学功能机制。因此,本文选取已婚伴侣为研究对象,采用二元设计(Dyadic design)的带中介主客体互倚模型(Actor Partner Interdependence Mediation Model, APIMeM),并结合追踪研究的方法,希望考察伴侣黑暗人格与亲密关系之间的双向影响,同时探究伴倡沟通方式作为个体间(Interpersonal)变量在其中起到的中介作用。希望不仅可以对人格与关系的理论做进一步补充,还可以为亲密关系的经营与维系提供现实意义。

研究分为三部分:研究1根据易感性一压力一婚姻调适(VIA)模型,选择己婚伴侣,分别考察伴侣自评和他评的马基雅维利主义(研究la)和精神病态(研究1b)与亲密关系(婚姻质量和婚姻不稳定性)的联系。结果发现,伴侣的婚姻质量在自评和他评马基雅维利主义与婚姻不稳定性之间起到完全中介作用(研究la);婚姻质量在伴侣他评精神病态与婚姻不稳定性之间起到完全中介作用,而伴侣自评精神病态与亲密关系之间没有显著关联(研究1b)。

研究2根据人格与关系互动(PRT)模型理论,采用追踪研究方法,分别考察Tl马基雅维利主义(研究}a)和Tl精神病态(研究?b)对T2(一年后)亲密关系产生的人格效应,同时探究伴侣T1沟通方式(言语沟通和非言语沟通)在其中起到的中介作用。结果发现,伴侣的Tl言语沟通以及T2婚姻质量完全中介了Tl他评马基雅维利主义(研究2a)和Tl他评精神病态(研究2b)对T2婚姻不稳定性的人格效应;伴侣T2婚姻质量完全中介Tl自评和他评马基雅维利主义(研究2a)和Tl自评和他评精神病态(研究2b)对T2婚姻不稳定性的人格效应;非言语沟通在其中均未起到显著中介作用。

研究3同样基于人格一关系互动((PRT)模型理论,采用追踪研究方法,考察伴侣Tl亲密关系对T2(一年后)马基雅维利主义(研究3a)和T2(一年后)精神病态(研究3b)产生的关系效应,同时探究伴侣Tl沟通方式作为个体间变量在其中起到的中介作用。结果发现,伴侣Tl婚姻质量和Tl言语沟通完全中介Tl婚姻不稳定性对T2他评马基雅维利主义(研究3a)和T2他评精神病态(研究3b>的关系效应;Tl婚姻质量完全中介Tl婚姻不稳定性对T2自评马基雅维利主义(研究3a)和自评精神病态(研究3b)的关系效应;而非言语沟通则并没有显著的中介作用。

总之,本研究发现了伴侣黑暗人格与亲密关系之间存在着双向影响,即同时存在黑暗人格对亲密关系的人格效应,也存在亲密关系对黑暗人格的关系效应。而伴侣的沟通方式(言语沟通)作为个体间效应变量,在其中起到了显著的中介作用。

Other Abstract

Intimate relationship is one of the most important indicators to measure individual well-being and quality of life and it is also vital for individual development and improvement. Research of personality and intimate relationship have always been concerned by scholars all over the world. However, most studies are limited to examine the one-way association between big five personality traits and close relationship. According to the Personality and relationship transaction theory, there may be a bidirectional association between personality and relationship. At the same time, the internal psychological mechanism under the personality relationship transaction is overlooked by previous studies. Moreover, the dark personality as prevalence traits has attracted much attention in recent years, which is characterized by its social undesirable and aversion. However, to some extent, the dark personality have some useful and adaptive aspects even achieve great success. Therefore, our research select the married couples and attempt to use the dyadic design (Actor Partner Interdependence Mediation Model, APIMeM) and with longitudinal design, to examine the bidirectional association between the dark personality and intimate relationship and explore the mediation effect of communication pattern. We expect that the current study can not only provide a further supplement for theoretical frame of personality and relationship, but also provide the practical implication for maintainment and management of intimate relationship.

Three studies were conducted to examine the bidirectional association between dark personality and intimate relationship and explore the mediation effect of communication pattern.

Study l a found that marital quality fully mediated the effect of couple's both self and partner report Machiavellianism on marital instability; Study 1b revealed that marital quality fully mediated the effect of partner report psychopathy on marital instability, but there was no significant effect between self report psychopathy and marital instability.

Study 2 use longitudinal design to examine the personality effect between dark personality and close relationship. Study 2a found that T2 (one year later) marital quality fully mediated the effect of couple's both self end partner report T1 l}achiavellianism on T2 marital instability9 both T1 verbal communication and T2 marital quality fully mediated the effect of partner report T1 Machiavellianism on T2 marital instability; Study 2b revealed that Tl verbal communication and T2 marital quality fully or partly mediated the association between partner-report T1 psychopathy and T2 marital instability. However, there was also no significant effect between self report psychopathy and marital instability.

Study 3 use longitudinal design to examine the relationship effect between close relationship and dark personality Both study 3a and 3b found Tl marital quality play a fully mediation role between T 1 marital instability and T2 couple's self report Machiavellianism and T2 self report psychopathy. Besides, studies also revealed that T1 marital quality and T1 verbal communication play a fully mediation role between T1 marital instability, and T2 couple's partner report 1Vlachiavcllianism and T2 couple's partner report psychopathy.

Generally speaking, our studies found the bidirectional association between dark personality and intimate relationship and testify that there are both personality and relationship effect. Moreover, communication pattern(verbal) as an interpersonal variable play a mediating role between personality and close relationship.

Pages112
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/28883
Collection健康与遗传心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
于悦. 伴侣黑暗人格与亲密关系的双向影响: 沟通方式的中介作用[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院大学,2018.
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