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企业员工心理灵活性与心理资本对拖延的影响及干预研究
Alternative TitleA Study of The Effects of Psychological Flexibility and Psychological Capital on Procrastination of Employees and lntervention
张洁
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor祝卓宏
2018-11
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline应用心理学
Keyword经验性回避 认知融合 拖延 心理资本 企业员工 接纳承诺疗法
Abstract

目的:

研究表明,20%的成年人习染着拖延的习惯难以自拔,每五个成年人中有一个可能有着拖延的习惯。大量文献表明,有拖延习惯的人长期承受着最后期限带来的心理压力及拖延所造成的内疚痛苦,而组织同样蒙受着因员工拖延而造成的损失。解决拖延是一件值得关注的事情。本研究以企业员工的拖延作为研究对象,通过对企业员工拖延与心理灵活性和心理资本三者之间的关系的研究,找到改善企业员工拖延的新思路。另外,本研究还将通过接纳承诺治疗法(ACT)与传统时间管理的培训对企业员工的拖延情况进行干预,从而为ACT作为提升企业员工心理灵活性的工具提供相关的证据。

方法:

研究一:选取上海市两家外企员工共388人,分别测量经验性回避、认知融合、心理资本以及拖延水平,用SPSS22.0对假设的路径分析模型进行验证,用Bootstrap检验法对研究模型中的中介效应进行检验。

研究二:将自愿报名的员工随机分为2个组,分别接受传统时间管理培训和加入了ACT元素的时间管理培训,使用配对样本T检验及独立样本T检验对两组前后测数据进行组间对比。

研究结果:

研究一:相关分析表明,企业员工的拖延分别与经验回避、认知融合正相关,与心理资本负相关,心理资本与经验回避和认知融合分别负相关。回归分析表明,企业员工的经验回避、认知融合分别对心理资本有负向预测作用。经验回避和认知融合分别对拖延得分有显著性的正向预测作用,同时心理资本对拖延有显著性的负向预测作用。路径分析模型结果显示,经验回避和认知融合在心理资本对拖延的影响之间存在部分中介效应。

研究二:(1)与培训前相比,培训后一周传统组和ACT组的拖延水平均显著下降,培训后两周传统组的拖延水平没有显著下降,ACT组仍有显著降低。(2)传统组的经验性回避、认知融合、心理资本水平在培训后一周和两周均没有显著变化,ACT组的经验性回避、认知融合、心理资本水平两次后测均有显著降低。(3>培训后一周,传统组和ACT组的整体自评较培切}前均有显著下降;培训后两周,传统组的整体自评分数较培训前没有显著下降,ACT组的整体自评分数仍有显著降低。

结论:

研究一:企业员工的经验回避和认知融合水平越低,拖延行为越少;员工的心理资本水平越高,拖延行为越少。降低员工的拖延水平可能能够通过提升员工的心理灵活性,降低经验回避、认知融合水平,或提升员工的心理资本水平来实现。较高的心理资本既可以直接降低员工的拖延,也可以通过降低经验回避和认知融合水平来降低员工的拖延。

研究二:企业员工的拖延水平可以通过实验干预来控制。传统时间管理方法和ACT+时间管理的方法均能够在短期内降低企业员工的拖延水平,但传统时间管理方法无法对员工的拖延起到长期的改善效果,而加入ACT元素的时间管理培训可以。传统时间管理方法无法改善员工的心理资木以及经验性回避和认知融合的水平,ACT接纳承诺疗法可以通过提升员工的心理资本,降低企业员工的经验性回避、认知融合水平来改善拖延水平。

Other Abstract

Objective:

Studies have shown that 20% of adults are prone to delays in habits, that is one out of every five adults may have a habit of procrastination. A large body of literature indicates that people who have procrastination have long suffered from the psychological pressure caused by the deadline and the guilty pain caused by the delay, and the organization suffers from the loss caused by the delay of the staff Solving delays is a matter of concern. This study takes the delay of enterprise employees as the research object, and finds new ideas to improve the delay of enterprise employees by studying the relationship among employee procrastination and psychological flexibility and psychological capital. In addition., the study will intervene in the employee procrastination by delivering ACT and traditional time management training, thus providing evidence for ACT as a tool to enhance the psychological flexibility of employees.

Method:

Study 1:388 employees of two foreign-owned enterprises in Shanghai were selected to measure experiential avoidance, cognitive fusion, psychological capital and procrastination levels. The hypothetical path analysis model was validated by SPSS22.0, and the mediation effect of the model was tested by Bootstrap test.

Study 2: Voluntary employees were randomly divided into two groups. They received traditional time management training and time management training with ACT elements. The data of the two groups were compared by paired sample T test and independent sample T test.

Results:

Study 1: Relevant analysis shows that employees' procrastination is positively correlated with experience avoidance and cognitive fusion, negatively correlated with psychological capital, and negatively correlated with experience avoidance and cognitive fusion. Regression analysis shows that employees' experience avoidance and cognitive fusion have negative predictive effects on psychological capital respectively. Experience Avoidance and cognitive fusion have a significant

positive predictive effects on procrastination scores, and psychological capital has significant negative predictive effects on procrastination. Path analysis model shows that experience avoidance and cognitive fusion have some mediating effects on the impact of psychological capital on procrastination.

study 2: (1) Compared with the pre}training, the procrastination level of the traditional group and ACT group decreased significantly one week after the training, traditional group did not decrease significantly two weeks after the training, but ACT group decreased significantly. (2) There were no significant changes in experiential avoidance, cognitive fusion and psychological capital level in the traditional group in one week and two weeks after training, while the two post-tests of experiential avoidance, cognitive fusion and psychological capital level in ACT group decreased significantly. (3) One week after the training, the overall self evaluation of the traditional group and ACT group both decreased significantly compared with that before the training; two weeks after the training, the overall self-evaluation of the traditional group did not decrease significantly compared with that before the training, and the overall self-evaluation of the ACT group still decreased significantly.

Conclusion:

Study 1: The lower the level of experience avoidance and cognitive fusion, the less procrastination; the higher the level of psychological capital, the less procrastination. Reducing Staff’s procrastination level may be achieved by improving staff s psychological flexibility, reducing the level of experience avoidance, cognitive fusion, or improving staff s psychological capital level. Higher psychological capital can not only directly reduce staff procrastination, but also reduce staff procrastination by reducing the level of experience avoidance and cognitive fusion.

Study 2: the delaying level of employees could be controlled by experimental intervention. Traditional time management methods and ACT+time management methods can reduce the level of delays of employees in a short time, but traditional time management methods can not improve the delays of employees for a long time, but time management training with ACT elements can. Traditional time management methods could not improve the level of employees' psychological capital, Experience Avoidance and cognitive fusion. ACT acceptance commitment therapy can improve the procrastination level by improving employees' psychological capital and reducing the leve1 of employees' Experience Avoidance and cognitive fusion.

Pages80
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/28886
Collection社会与工程心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张洁. 企业员工心理灵活性与心理资本对拖延的影响及干预研究[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院大学,2018.
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