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父母教养方式、儿童气质与3-5岁儿童亲社会行为的关系
Alternative TitleThe Relationship among Parenting Style, Children's Temperament and 3-to 5-year-old Children's Prosicial Behavior
毕岢
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor张真
2016-11
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline发展与教育心理学
Keyword儿童 父母教养方式 儿童气质 亲社会行为 助人 分享
Abstract

诸多研究表明儿童的亲社会行为受到教养方式和气质的共同影响,但对于这种影响的机制尚无一致的结论。近期关于亲社会行为各类别之间存在差异的研究启发出新思路,有必要从亲社会行为各类别分别入手去重新审视亲社会行为的影响因素及其相互间的关系。本文以助人和分享行为为例,首先考察了助人和分享行为之间存在的差异。其次,分别考察了教养方式、儿童气质对助人、分享行为的影响及教养方式、儿童童气质之间的相互关系,以及这种相互关系对助人、分享行为的影响。本研究采用父母教养方式和维度问卷(PSDQ)、儿童行为问卷简版(CBQ)进行问卷测量,并采用捡东西任务(助人行为)和独裁者任务(分享行为)作为实验情境,对94名3-5岁儿童(男生45人,女生49人,月龄54. 34士0. 56)进行了研究。结果发现:首先,相关分析中实验法测得的助人行为和分享行为不相关,进一步的方差分析一也发现两种行为在发展特点上有所不同:分享行为得分无年龄的主效应,而助人行为得分上年龄的主效应显著(F(2, 88)= 12.75, p<0.01, np2=0. 23 ) , 5岁儿童的助人行为得分显著高于3岁和4岁。可见,助人与分享是两种独立的亲社会行为。其次,用相关分析和分层回归分析分别探讨了助人和分享行为的影响因素及各影响因素之间的相互关系。结果发现,月龄(β=0. 43, p=0. 00 )和父亲专制型教养方式均值(β=0. 26, p=0. 02 )能显著预测助人,而母亲专制型教养方式均值(β=0.25 , p=0. 05 )能显著预测分享。对亲社会行为各影响因素之间关系的分析发现父母教养方式各维度与气质的努力控制之间均存在着双向互动关系,气质努力控制能正向预测父/母的权威型教养方式,也能负向预测父/母亲的专制型教养方式,反之,父/一母亲权威型教养方式能正向预测努力控制,而父/母亲专制型教养方式则能负向预测努力。进一步中介效应检验发现,气质的努力控制通过母亲专制型教养方式来影响实验中的分享行为(采用Bootstrapping 的检验显示:间接效应为-0. 16,间接效应的90%的置信区间为[0. 43,-0.01],不包括0,中介作用显著)。

本研究结果表明:(1)实验测得的助人和分享是两类独立的亲社会行为,有着各自不同的发展特点和规律;(2)专制型教养方式对亲社会行为有预测效力,且助人和分享行为分别受不同性别家长的专制型教养方式的影响(3)气质对亲社会行为不发生直接作用,可能是通过教养方式这个中介变量来影响亲社会行为。

Other Abstract

Many studies show that children's prosocial behaviors are affected by influence of parenting style and children's temperament, but an agreement is still not reached yet on the mechanism of the influence. Recent studies of difference within each category of prosocial behavior provide a new enlightenment that it may be necessary to re-examine the influence factors and mutual relations between the factors on different category basis. This study, taking the helping and sharing behavior as an example, Firstly examined the distinction between helping and sharing behavior using experimental methods, then investigated the influence of parenting style or temperament on helping and sharing respectively and the mutual relationship between these two influence factors, as well as the relationship's influence asserting on helping and sharing. This study adopted the "Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ)", "Children's Behavior Questionnaire Short Fo10m (CBQ)", and set the experimental circumstance of helping and sharing behavior by adapting the "picking up something game" and "dictator game" to investigate 94 3-to 5-year-old children (45 boys, 49 girls, month of age 54.34士0.56). The result displays, firstly, there's no correlation between helping and sharing behavior in experimental circumstance. Further variance analysis of experiment result reveals, there is main age effect on sharing behavior, but on helping behavior (F (2, 88)=12.75, p<0.01,np2=0.23). The helping behavior increase by age and 4-years-old seems to be the turning point. It seems helping and sharing are two different categories of prosocial behavior in circumstance of experiment. Then, the Pearson correlation analysis and Hierarchical multiple regression are applied to explore the influence factors of prosocial behaviors as well as their relationship. The month of age( β=0.43,p<0.01) and mean value of paternal authoritarian style( β=0.26,p=0.02) can predict helping, while maternal authoritarian style(β=0.25,p=0.05) can predict sharing. When we explore the relationship influence factors, the result reveals the mutual relationship between parenting within styles and effort control of temperament. Effort control can positively predict paternal/maternal authoritative parenting styles, and negatively predict paternal/maternal authoritarian parenting styles as well. Conversely, paternal/maternal authoritative parenting styles can positively predict effort control, and paternal/maternal authoritarian parenting can negatively predict effort control. Further mediation effect examination reveals, the effort control affect the sharing behavior through the influence of maternal authoritarian parenting style (Result from Bootstrapping techniques show indirect effect was -0.16, with a 90% confidence interval[0.43,-0.01] which does not include 0, which means the mediating effect is significant).

This study indicates: (1) Sharing and helping are totally two distinct categories of prosocial behavior, which have different developing characteristics and trajectory. (2) The authoritarian parenting has a very high predict effect on prosocial behaviors. Specifically, helping and sharing are affected by different gender of parent's authoritarian parenting. (3)Temperament has no direct effect on prosocial behavior but may assert the effect on prosocial behavior through the mediator, pai0enting style.

Pages53
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/28899
Collection认知与发展心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
毕岢. 父母教养方式、儿童气质与3-5岁儿童亲社会行为的关系[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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