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独立我的城乡差异
Alternative TitleUrban-rural Differences on Independence Self
侯东霞
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor任孝鹏
2016-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline应用心理学
Keyword独立自我 依存自我 期待特质 关系流动 城乡差异
Abstract

根据文化心理学的理论,受不同亚文化的影响,城乡居民会构建出不同的价值观,必然会呈现出不同水平的独立自我,表现出有差异的心理和行为模式。为了验证这种假设,本研究选取了147名农村高中生和156人城市高中生(其中:男生106人,女生200人)作为被试,完成了自我构念问卷、象征性自我膨胀和关系流动问卷等系列问卷调查和模拟真实的社会情境评估。

问卷调查的结果显示:城市籍高中生的独立自我程度高于农村籍高中生。城市籍的高中生比农村籍学生有更高水平的独立自我和关系流动性,而在依存自我和象征性自我膨胀方面,无明显的城乡差异。此外,父母对孩子期待的人格特质存在显著的性别差异,父亲和母亲都期望女儿具备更多宽容和同情的人格特质,母亲还特别强调儿子具备较多的责任感这种人格特质。城市籍父亲比农村籍父亲更强调独立特质;而城市籍母亲比农村籍母亲更在意独立特质和更不在意依存性特质。城市籍高中生比农村籍高中生在估计自己和同班同学能够考上大学的平均概率方面更为乐观,而两组高中生在估计全国大学生的高考通过率方面,差别不显著。高学历家庭的子女,比低学历家庭的子女,在估计自己和同班同学能够考上大学的平均概率更为乐观。

对模拟真实情境采用了行为(欺诈/诚实)*关系(陌生人/朋友))*文化(城市/农村)的被试间设计,结果表明主效应显著。在奖励朋友上存在显著的性别差异,关系方面:被试奖励朋友多于陌生人,惩罚朋友少于陌生人,差异非常显著。在文化方面:在奖励朋友、惩罚朋友和奖励陌生人上,存在显著的城乡差异。

本研究用问卷调查和模拟真实情境相结合的研究设计,考察了城乡在独立我的表现差异,验证了在同一文化下的不同区域,也会因为地区文化的不同导致个体的独立性程度高低不一的理论假设。虽然只是一项初步研究,沿用了国外的研究范式,但由于扩大了取样范围,考察了中国内陆城市和乡村下的高中生的独立自我的表现,所得的结果有一定的理论价值。模拟真实的社会情境究结果与问卷调查的结果具有一定的吻合。考虑到未来研究的发展方向,需要结合内隐联想测验和新的评估指标来完善研究设计,以期获得更有价值的发现。

Other Abstract

According to the theory of cultural psychology, affected by different subculture, urban and rural residents will build different values and are bound to show a different level of independent self showing differences in psychological and behavioral patterns. To test this hypothesis, this study selected 147 rural and 156 urban high school students (of which: 106 male, 200 female) as participants, they completed self-construal survey, symbolic self-expanding and relational mobility questionnaires and were investigated by the simulation of the really social situations.

The results of the survey urban and rural subjects showed significant regional differences. Urban high school students were more independent self and relational mobility, but there were no differences on self-dependence and symbolic aspects of self-expansion. At the same time, the results also showed that there were significant gender differences in personality traits expected of children by their parents. In other words, mothers and fathers expect daughters had more tolerant and compassionate personality traits, the mother also emphasized that his son has more responsibility this personality trait. Urban fathers more emphases nature of the dependence than rural fathers; Urban mothers more concerned about dependent and independent trait characteristics than rural mothers. In estimating he and his classmates can be admitted to the University of average probability aspect, urban high school students were more optimistic than rural high school students, however, as to the estimated national rate of college entrance examination among the total examinees, two groups of high school students did not showed any significant difference. 1n estimating he and his classmates can be admitted to the university of average probability aspect, the high school students educated by parents with high diplomas were more optimistic than those by parents with low diplomas.

Used a 2 (behavior: deception/honesty) X 2 (relationship: stranger/friend) X 2 (culture: urban/rural) factorial, within-participants design on the third factor, the results of the social situations showed that the main effect was significant. There were significant gender differences in reward friends. As to relations, the subjects rewarded friends more than strangers, while punished friends less than the strangers, and the differences were very statistically significant. About the cultural aspect, there were significant differences between urban and rural subjects in three areas of rewarding friends, punishing friends and rewarding strangers.

To investigate the urban and rural difference on depend self, the combination studies design consisting of the series of questionnaires and the social situations was used in assumption was validated that in different areas under the same culture, because this study. The of the different cultures of the region, the sub-culture led to the uneven degrees .of independence among the individuals. Although only a preliminary study, we followed the foreign research paradigm, but due to the expansion of the scope of sampling to investigate the independent self-expression under the Chinese inland urban and rural high school students, the results obtained had certain theoretical value. The results of the social situations had a certain agreement with those of questionnaires. Taking into account the future direction of research, it requires a combination of IAT and new evaluation indicators to improve the study design, in order to obtain more valuable discoveries.

Pages53
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/28908
Collection社会与工程心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
侯东霞. 独立我的城乡差异[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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